The Christian Worldview compared to Deepak Chopra’s

Introduction

Shortly after the Second World War, the term “worldview,” became a concept.[1] David Naugle explains a worldview as an “inescapable function of the human heart and is central to the identity of human beings as Imago Dei.[2]Everyone has a worldview, it is the viewpoint from which people think, and the framework from which people act.[3]One’s worldviews and presuppositions provide a foundation for how they perceive reality.[4] People’s presuppositions and views of the world also provide the framework for their life values and decisions, which makes the details of one’s worldview quite important.[5] A person’s worldview of the creator, whether they believe they are a drop of water in the ocean of the pantheistic universe, or a being created by a personal God, will determine the choices and actions they make in their life.[6]  This thesis will compare the worldview of new age spiritual teacher Deepak Chopra with the Christian worldview using a four-question rubric; both worldviews will be evaluated to determine which worldview corresponds to reality.

Before one can embark on evaluating and comparing worldviews, a standardized method of evaluation like a rubric must be set forth. There is a four-question worldview rubric used by many worldview scholars. What is human nature? What is the world? What is humankind’s problem? What is humankind’s end?[7] Another way to phrase these questions could be; “Who are we? Where are we? What is wrong? and What is the answer?”[8] Another way to word the worldview rubric is by origin (1), meaning (2), morality (3), destiny (4), requiring that all four categories must correspond with empirical truth and logical reasoning, and all four must also be coherent with one another.[9] All worldviews can be tested based on these four questions to establish whether they correspond to reality and cumulatively support one another. The chart below provides a visual example of the same four-rubric worldview questions, asked in differing language.

Worldview Scholar Smith[10] 1. Who are we? 2. Where are we? 3. What is wrong? 4. What is the answer?
Worldview Scholars Anderson, Clark, Naugle[11] 1. What is mankind’s nature? 2. What is the world? 3. What is mankind’s problem? 4. What is mankind’s end?
Worldview Scholar Zacharias[12] 1. Origin 2. Meaning 3. Morality 4. Destiny

 

Some worldviews cannot answer each of the rubric questions in a coherent fashion that reflects observable reality. For a worldview to be viable, it must be testable and able to be proven true or false.[13] J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig state in their book Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview, “In its simplest form, the correspondence theory of truth says that a proposition (sentence, belief) is true just in case it corresponds to reality, when what it asserts to be the case is the case.”[14] Kenneth Richard Samples states in his book A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth Claims to the Worldview Test “The widely accepted correspondence theory of truth says that truth equals what corresponds to reality.”[15] The correspondence test of truth has two parts which can be referred to as (1) facts and (2) experiences from which the world can be observed and evaluated.[16] The correspondence theory of truth will be used in this worldview comparison in addition to the cumulative test of coherence. The cumulative assessment will analyze the multiple answers from each worldview question as they add up to see if they cohere with one another as evidence.[17]Samples adds, “The best worldview does not depend upon only one particular argument or piece of evidence to make its case.”[18] Rather, each of the answers to the four-question worldview rubric should support one another in a cumulative manner.

The position of this paper presupposes the biblical Christian worldview as the only worldview that corresponds to reality and successfully answers the four-question worldview rubric coherently in a supportive case. This thesis intends to demonstrate how Chopra’s worldview falls short when corresponding to reality in comparison to the Christian worldview using the four-question worldview rubric and the correspondence theory of truth. This thesis will be limited to the worldview that Chopra teaches in his books, and the Christian worldview as explained in books. Both worldviews will be applied to the four-question worldview rubric and correspondence theory of truth for evaluation and their cumulative coherence will be evaluated and compared.

It is important to understand differing worldviews to help equip Christians on why the biblical Christian worldview is coherent and corresponds to truth and reality in a cumulative manner. In the words of Francis Schaeffer, “the problem is having, and then acting upon, the right worldview—the worldview which gives men and women the truth of what is.”[19] Christians who believe in absolute truth benefit from understanding the message of pop-culture “gurus,” like Chopra, and how his teachings attempt to undermine the Christian worldview.[20] Worldviews like those of Deepak Chopra are “all-inclusive subjective philosophies;” when subjectivity is taught as truth, society loses absolute truth.[21]Because the biblical worldview makes absolute truth claims, subjective worldviews that deny truth would logically deny the absolute truths of the biblical worldview. The importance of the problem with the worldview of Chopra’s teachings is that it lacks any absolute truth.[22]  A more in-depth understanding of worldview will allow Christian’s to fully grasp what the Christian worldview is and why it is important to live according to one’s worldview and defend one’s worldview compared to other worldviews using the four-question worldview rubric.

This thesis paper has four chapters. Each chapter is dedicated to each one of the four worldview rubric questions and follows the same formula. Within each chapter, the rubric question will be answered from the teachings of Chopra then answered from the biblical Christian teachings and worldview. Each worldview will then be evaluated and compared by how it corresponds to reality. As chapters progress, each worldview rubric question will be evaluated on how it coheres with the previous rubric questions in a cumulative manner. Chapter one will provide research pertaining to Chopra’s worldview and the Christian worldview based on rubric question one which is: What is the origin of people, or who are we, or what is mankind’s nature? First Chopra’s position will be presented, then the Christian worldview will be presented. Lastly, the two worldviews will be compared and evaluated for how they correspond with reality. Chapter’s two, three and four will be the same layout as chapter one, just with a different rubric question as the basis for each chapter. As the chapters progress the rubric answers will be evaluated cumulatively for coherence.

Chapter One: Origin or Who Are We or What is Mankind’s Nature?

What is the origin of humanity? Who are human beings? What is mankind’s nature? There is no question more profound to humanity than the question of origin and identity.[23] Some hypothesize that mankind is the most evolved animal, or a spirit trapped in a fleshy casing, or fallen beings made in God’s image.[24] One worldview may believe that mankind and all things are divine,[25] while another worldview may believe that people as created beings fall very short of God’s moral standards and ten commandments.[26] Two distinct worldviews in this first chapter will be explored. The perspective of the biblical Christian worldview answering rubric question one, and the view of pop-culture spiritual guru Deepak Chopra.

Chopra’s Worldview Rubric Question One

Who or what is humanity according to new age teacher Deepak Chopra?  Chopra explains that people are pure consciousness, or pure potentiality, able to do anything with infinite creativity.[27] Chopra writes, “The source of all creation is pure consciousness… pure potentiality seeking expression from the unmanifest to the manifest. And when we realize that our true self is one of pure potentiality, we align with the power that manifests everything in the universe.”[28]Chopra explains attributes of mankind’s essence as infinite in nature, unbounded, joyful, blissful, perfect balance, invincibility, simplicity, pure knowledge,  and infinite silence.[29] Chopra explains that mankind needs to discover his essential nature, and when mankind knows who he really is, he can fulfill any dream because there is no separation between mankind and the field of energy known as Pure Potentiality.[30] To access the infinite power of Pure Potentiality one must have what Chopra refers to as “real power,” or “the power of the Self.”[31] Chopra goes on to explain that everyone at their truest essence is a soul or spirit; and everyone is the “same Self in different disguises.”[32]

Chopra teaches that “a flower, a rainbow, a tree, a blade of grass, a human body, when broken down to their essential components are energy and information.”[33] Chopra believes that humans are not separate from the universe, but that the universe is merely the extended body of people.[34] In his books, Chopra explains that people can literally “command the laws of nature to fulfill their dreams and desires.”[35] Chopra teaches that to fulfil dreams and desires one must “activate the field of infinite correlation,” by “going to the ground of creation and introduce an intention.”[36]Chopra teaches that humanity’s nature is to fulfil its purpose by “lovingly nurturing the god or goddess in embryo that lies deep within the human soul.”[37] He concludes The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success by reminding his readers to never forget their identity as luminous conscious star dust, “we are travelers on a cosmic journey—star dust, swirling and dancing in the eddies and whirlpools of infinity.”[38]

Chopra explains “the mystical Jesus was describing his essence and our own at the same time; this essence is a speck of God, the soul substance inside everyone that never became separated from its source.”[39] Chopra believes that Jesus described the whole of humanity when he referred to himself as the Son of God.[40] According to Chopra, Jesus, like God is the same essence as people are with God, completely the same and unifi

ed.[41]

Chopra states, “Eternity indicates that human beings are children of the cosmos; our life is beyond the boundaries of time.”[42] Chopra shares an excerpt of Walt Whitman’s poetry where Whitman declares, “I am large: I contain multitudes.”[43] After Whitman’s poem and another similar poem, Chopra declares about his book “this book offers the same answer, not as poetry but as a fact that overturns accepted conventional reality.”[44] Chopra validates his facts by saying “The cosmic theory is not a pet theory but the most fundamental “Self” anyone possesses. If it didn’t exist, neither would the physical world, including all the people and things in it.”[45] Chopra further states “You are not in the universe, the universe is in you.”[46] Chopra believes all intellectual concepts lead to a sense of separation, and from the human perspective no one can ever really understand what is real since it is unattainable from the human vantage point.[47]Chopra teaches the origin of everything, including humanity is “dimensionless being” that chooses to create out of itself.[48]  Chopra believes and teaches that all people are the same soul-Self in different disguises.[49] He declares that the whole of humanity are “god’s and goddesses in embryo” who have forgotten who they are.[50] His worldview believes the universe would not exist if humanity did not exist since the universe is in people.[51]

Chopra explains the illusory problem of evil and states, “ultimately good and evil are forms that consciousness can choose to take.”[52] He continues by saying “There is no cosmic Satan to rival God, and even the war between good and evil is only an illusion born of duality.”[53] Chopra believes in non-duality or oneness which means everything is God, there is no separation between the creator and the created. Chopra believes people must self-realize that they are co-creators with God, and he calls this highest level of spiritual achievement “God consciousness.”[54] Of the highest level of spiritual achievement Chopra explains “finally, the last level sees the entire play of good and evil, light and shadow, as an illusion; every experience brings union with the creator, one lives as a co-creator immersed in God consciousness.”[55]Chopra believes evil cannot be a person’s enemy if the world is in a person, evil is just another aspect of a person’s “Self” that is worthy of love.[56]

Chopra has clearly answered the first of the four worldview rubric questions. What is humanity and its nature and origin? Chopra’s worldview teaches the origin of everything, including humanity is “dimensionless being” that chooses to create out of itself.[57]  Chopra’s worldview states that all people are the same soul-Self in different disguises.[58] He declares that the whole of humanity are “god’s and goddesses in embryo” who have forgotten who they are.[59] His worldview believes the universe would not exist if humanity did not exist since the universe is in people.[60] Next, one must evaluate how the Christian worldview answers this first worldview rubric question.

Christian Worldview Rubric Question One

In the words of Augustine, “Who made me? Did not my God, Who is not only good, but goodness himself?”[61] In the Christian view of the world, God rules over everything, His ways are not the ways of mankind, however, humanity is made in His image and likeness.[62] Humans are finite beings, that can only know God when he reveals himself to people.[63] In the Christian worldview, human beings are created in God’s image, so for humanity to answer rubric question one, they must first understand God’s nature.[64] God is the ultimate of all Good, and the purest form of Truth.[65] Since human beings are made in God’s image, all humans have inherent dignity, value, and human rights.[66]Believers of Christ have added value and worth as they are indwelt by God’s Holy Spirit.[67] Made in God’s image, humanity has personality, emotions, a rational mind, and a will; and humans are personable creatures made in the likeness of their personal and rational God.

John Calvin’s first chapter of his book Institutes of the Christian Religion is about how mankind can only know himself by first knowing God.[68] God has dominion over the cosmos and has equipped man to have dominion over the earth.[69] Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish of the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground” (Gen. 1:26-28). Anderson, Clark and Naugle explain, “God wanted humanity, who bears His image and likeness, to do as He has done—that is, to form the earth culturally by having dominion over it, and to fill it with more and more images and likenesses of God by being fruitful and multiplying.”[70] God has communicable attributes he transferred and shared in a limited degree as he chose to when creating humans.[71]

Mankind was created in God’s image (Gen. 1:26-27) and in his original state, mankind was “very good” (Gen. 1:31).[72] God’s Word also says that humans are fallen beings (Rom. 3:23), but Christians are redeemed as new creatures when they are born again in Jesus Christ (2: Cor. 5:17).[73] This means that people are intelligent, rational, and spiritual beings able to discern right from wrong, and comprehend the communication and ideals which God has revealed to humanity.[74] However, as Blaise Pascal states, “humankind’s greatness and wretchedness are so evident that true religion must necessarily teach us that there is in humankind some great principle of greatness and some great principle of wretchedness.”[75] All of humanity suffers as they live with the tension of the greatness of God’s likeness and the wretchedness of the fall.[76] The likeness of humanity is not an identical replica of God, but many traits are shared. In the Christian worldview there is hope for fallen humanity, Christians who have embraced Jesus have the hope of forgiveness and promise of God’s redemption.

The Christian worldview holds that man, although fallen, was made in the likeness of God and is able to know God and have human knowledge of the world as God has made human knowledge available to mankind in addition to revealing Himself to people.[77] Ronald H. Nash explains further that, “reason and logic have cosmic significance. Reason has an intrinsic relationship to God. The law of noncontradiction is a law of being because the universe is the creation of a rational God.”[78] The Christian worldview declares that mankind is able to know creation or the rational world because God is rational, and God made people in His image or likeness.

So, the Christian worldview is clear in answering rubric question one of: Who is humanity, what is their nature and origin? The Christian worldview explains people are rational and intelligent beings made in God’s image but have also fallen from their nature. Now that both worldviews have been researched and defined in chapter one, it is time to compare each worldview with reality as people experience it, and, apply the correspondence theory of truth to each worldview.

Correspond with Reality?

False worldviews can come into existence from faulty reasoning.[79] For a worldview to be valid, it needs to coincide with the actual state of affairs in the world.[80] This means that to judge a worldview one needs to compare it to the human reality experienced in the world. For example, on a highway there is observable order, for the most part cars stay in their lanes with the exception of the occasional accident, but one does not observe cars randomly crashing into one another constantly. Because one can operate a car and trust their observations of reality to drive from point a to point b, their instincts to drive that car correspond to the reality people experience and share on planet earth. This same logic will be applied now to the worldview of Chopra and the Christian worldview using the correspondence theory of truth. The correspondence theory of truth simply states that worldview claims must match the observed world, and truth corresponds to reality, the same way the laws of driving a vehicle correspond to reality.[81]

The irony of this is that Chopra believes all intellectual concepts lead to a sense of separation, and from the human perspective no one can ever really understand what is real since it is unattainable from the human vantage point.[82] So Chopra contradicts himself by declaring what is real and true in all his writings, even though he says what is real and true cannot be known from the human vantage point. He starts off with an incoherent statement.

Who are people according to Deepak Chopra? Chopra explains people are “god’s and goddesses in embryo” who have forgotten who they are,[83] people are the same soul-Self in different disguises,[84] people should never forget their identity as luminous conscious star dust, “we are travelers on a cosmic journey—star dust, swirling and dancing in the eddies and whirlpools of infinity.”[85] Chopra believes people originated from “dimensionless being,” or a pantheistic life force chose to create from itself. [86] The correspondence theory of truth states these beliefs, in order to be true, must be observable in human reality and experience. C.S. Lewis explains, “a painter is not the painting, and he does not die if the painting is destroyed.”[87] In observable reality we observe beings coming from other beings or said in another way a home does not just build itself, there must be a builder. Thomas Aquinas argues this point in his famous five ways argument that “a being that is moved or changed must be moved or changed by that which is external to itself; because there can be no infinite regress, there must be an Unmoved Mover.”[88] So far, Chopra fails the correspondence test of truth, but one should not be surprised since Chopra believes all intellectual concepts are impossible to be known from the human perspective.[89] Not only does Chopra fail the correspondence test, but also his argument is illogical and fails a basic coherence test. How can one be a god or goddess in embryo and also be one with the Ultimate Reality of oneness of the universe?[90] Being a god or goddess in embryo and one with the universe are two distinct roles that contradict his statement.

Chopra believes the universe is inside of people, and the universe cannot exist if there were not people to create it.[91] Since Chopra believes reality is impossible to be known from the human perspective it is contradictory that he claims the universe is in people and would not exist if people did not create it, according to his belief, it would be impossible for him to know anything.[92] From the perspective of observable reality, the universe is not inside people, so he fails the correspondence test of truth.

Chopra believes evil cannot be a person’s enemy since evil is illusory, evil is just another aspect of a persons’ self.[93] Chopra believes everything is divine, evil is not real, evil is only a problem of a person’s perception.[94] Evil is evident in the world, one can observe this on the evening news; therefore, using the correspondence theory of truth Chopra’s worldview fails to hold up to the backdrop of reality which people experience and share their experiences together.

Last, Chopra gives attributes to people including invincibility, perfect balance and perfect silence.[95] Human death, injury, and illness are all an observable reality on planet earth. Therefore, the attribute of invincibility does not apply to mankind; and once again Chopra’s worldview, while poetic and wishful, does not apply to the truth of reality that people live in. Lastly perfect silence and perfect balance do not correspond with the human reality and experience on planet earth. Human’s make noise, there is lots of noise in big cities, and infants are quite loud. Perfect balance is also not a reality whether that balance means people never fall or are emotional balanced, neither are a true case on planet earth as a human. Chopra’s worldview fails to correspond with reality and is incoherent. Next, the Christian worldview will be assessed.

The Christian worldview declares that human beings are made in God’s image, all humans have inherent dignity, value, and human rights.[96] Does this perspective correspond with reality? In most of the world, there are human rights, and it is illegal to take another person’s life because of this inherent human value and dignity. Therefore, the Christian worldview does reflect reality in the world today. The Christian worldview passes the correspondence theory of truth test so far. Also, the position so far is coherent, all people would agree that their life and their children’s lives are valuable, which agrees with the narrative of the Bible that people have inherent dignity, value, and worth.[97]

Made in God’s image, humanity has personality, emotions, a rational mind, and a will; and humans are personable creatures made in the likeness of their personal and rational God. People do have personality’s, emotions and the ability to use their minds to choose to build skyscrapers, fly airplanes and design bombs (unlike animals). The second point of the Christian worldview also corresponds to reality and reflects what people experience in the world. People are emotional, and mostly rational personal beings.

The Christian worldview explains that humanity is also fallen, it explains that all of humanity suffers as they live in tension of the greatness of God’s likeness and the wretchedness of the fall.[98] The concept of being fallen also corresponds to reality as people have the ability to love others, and also be deeply hurt by others and hurt others with words or in actions. There is no such thing as a person who has never had conflict, misspoke, or had a bad thought towards another. The Christian worldview reflects observable reality perfectly. Samples explains, “when human thoughts cohere and correspond with reality, people comprehend truth.”[99] The truth of the biblical Christian worldview is definitely corresponding to reality.

It is evident that the biblical Christian worldview reflects reality and passes the correspondence theory of truth test to rubric question one. Samples explains, “when understood and interpreted properly, the knowledge revealed by God in general revelation (via the created order) corresponds to the truth revealed by God in special revelation (Scripture).”[100]The Christian worldview is also logically coherent. Chopra’s ideals do not reflect reality and have failed the basic logic of the correspondence theory of truth test. Not only does Chopra’s logic completely miss the mark, but he contradicts his own claims to truth by saying that no one is unable to know anything of reality or truth to begin with, yet he makes truth claims as fact himself. [101]

Chapter 2: Meaning or Where are We? What is the World?

What is the world, its meaning and where is humanity? Are people just a part of a random Big-Bang in nature caused by energy matter and chance?[102] Or are people located in an all-encompassing oneness, like a drop of water in the ocean of everything divine?[103] Or do people need to know their creator to understand the creation of the world they live in?[104] Rubric question two will analyze the question of where is humanity from the worldview perspectives of Chopra, and the Christian worldview to determine which worldview corresponds to reality.

Chopra’s Worldview Rubric Question Two

Chopra answers rubric question two of what-is-the-world—or, where are people—by stating the world is inside people. He states “for all anyone knows, the entire outside world could be a dream.[105] Chopra states there is no proof that the world exists, so he concludes with his second spiritual secret: “you are not in the world the world is in you.”[106]Chopra says, “the only reason that rocks are solid is because the brain registers a flurry of electrical signals as touch; the only way the sun shines is that the brain registers another flurry of electrical signals as sight.”[107]  He continues, “having said the whole world is in me, I immediately realize that you could say the same thing. Are you in my dream or am I in yours—or are we trapped in some bizarre combination of each other’s personal version of events?”[108] Chopra goes on to say “To me, this isn’t a problem but the very heart of spirituality. Everyone is a creator.”[109] Chopra explains, “this story of lost perfection debases human beings instead of exalting them…people told themselves that human nature must be innately flawed, that everyone wore the scars of sin, that God disapproved of his once innocent children.”[110] Chopra believes people need to stop living in the paradigm of being separate, and realize they are one with everything.[111]Chopra concludes by stating “what is truly real: An infinite silent energy field flickered for an instant, experiencing an object (the rose) and a subject (you the observer) without going anywhere.”[112] Awareness merely was admiring an aspect of its own beauty.[113] “You and the rose stood at opposite poles at that moment, yet there was no separation. A single creative stroke took place fusing you both.”[114]

Chopra believes the world is a flicker of an instant, and the world is in people and there is no separation, although people have separate dreams, separation is an illusion. Chopra believes there is no proof the world exists and solid objects people observe, like a rock are just flurry’s in ones’ brain activity. He must believe people’s brain exists to create the illusory world.

 

Christian Worldview Rubric Question Two

What is the world? Plantinga explains, “The entire universe takes on a personal cast for him; the fundamental truth about reality is truth about a Person.”[115] God chose to intervene into the world, He provided revelation with His Word making it possible for people to have a biblical worldview.[116] Genesis one makes it clear that God created the whole of the cosmos, including the earth.[117] Augustine says, “there can be no better author than God, no more effective skill than his word, no better cause than that a good product should be created by God, who is good.”[118] Bible scholar L. Russ Bush explains, “The world he created is orderly, beautiful, useful, full of energetic power, yet stable and meaningful (Rom. 1:20).”[119] However, within the beauty “men find themselves in a world of earthquake and typhoon.”[120] No one can deny the world is not perfect, the only reason people even conceive of perfection is because God created us in his image, to love truth and seek his perfection.[121] Once mankind can comprehend God’s Word about the nature of His creation, then mankind will better navigate and understand life on earth.[122]

So, what kind of world did God choose to create and why? The world people live in, earth, was created by God, fallen by man, redeemed by Jesus, and someday will be glorified in the new heavens and new earth.[123] “The world exists as the result of a free decision to create by a God who is eternal, transcendent, spiritual (that is, nonmaterial), omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent, loving and personal.”[124] God created the world from nothing for His own reasons because He willed to, God did not have to create, but it was a result of His love.[125] “The existence of the world, therefore, is not a brute fact; nor is the world a purposeless machine.”[126] The cosmos are not self-created, they were lovingly and freely created by God.[127]

When people accept the biblical answer that they live in God’s creation, it provides meaning and purpose and affects how one views the world and treats people.[128] Francis Schaeffer states, “we must remember that the person whom we are talking, however far from the Christian faith he may be, is an image-bearer of God. He has great value, and our communication to him must be in genuine love.”[129] The second worldview rubric question places importance on all of God’s creation and provides meaning and guidance for how people are to interact in the world. Now to evaluate how the Christian worldview and Chopra’s worldview perform when tested against the coherence test and the correspondence theory of truth test

 

 

 

Correspond to Reality? Cumulative Coherence?

How does the worldview of Chopra stack up to the Christian worldview for rubric question two and the correspondence theory of truth? Chopra believes the world does not exist outside of people but within people, as they are divinity who creates the world. [130] He further believes that all of reality is not provable and is no different than a dream.[131] Does Chopra’s worldview correspond with empirical facts and align with human experience with regards to the correspondence test? Do human beings who are “divine gods” suffer from severe amnesia making reality completely not knowable to virtually the whole of humanity?[132] How could a divine god or goddess who is one with the life force of the cosmos not be able to perceive reality and live in illusion?[133] Second, if the outer world is an illusion within people’s god brains, then here is nothing that can be true or self-evident, which, completely destroys Chopra’s position once again.[134] Chopra’s philosophy is “illusionary philosophy that declares that all is an illusion.”[135] Chopra’s view of the world fails the correspondence theory of empirical truth test.

Chopra says, “the only reason that rocks are solid is because the brain registers a flurry of electrical signals as touch; the only way the sun shines is that the brain registers another flurry of electrical signals as sight.”[136]  Does his worldview and belief correspond to reality? Would a rock or the sun exist if a human was not there to create it with the flurry of their brain signals? Chopra seems to question the existence of the sun and a rock existing externally, yet he firmly believes the brain exists externally and his observance of it is valid. Based on his logic since he believes people cannot perceive reality, how could he know the brain exists to interpret the sun and the rock if humans are unable to have a real knowing of the illusory reality they live in?[137] There is inconsistency and incoherence in his logic, since he states the sun and a rock only exist because of the brain, then how can he know the brain really exists?

Chopra explains, “Are you in my dream or am I in yours—or are we trapped in some bizarre combination of each other’s personal version of events?”[138] Chopra goes on to say “To me, this isn’t a problem but the very heart of spirituality. Everyone is a creator.”[139] Then in the next breath Chopra points out the biblical worldview and how it is flawed,[140] Chopra explains that people need to stop living in the paradigm of being separate, and realize they are one with everything.[141] Notice the contradiction? Chopra just said, “Are you in my dream or am I in yours—or are we trapped in some bizarre combination of each other’s personal version of events?”[142] How can everyone be “one” and also need to stop living in the paradigm of separation yet have separate dreams? Chopra’s logic conflicts with his own belief. He acknowledges he is one with everything and there is no separation, yet he acknowledges that his dreams are separate from other people’s dreams. Chopra’s worldview beliefs fail the coherence test and the correspondence test. The cumulative assessment of Chopra’s worldview has failed rubric question one and two. His worldview beliefs do not correspond to empirical reality, and his positions are incoherent.

The biblical worldview states that this world is orderly, stable, and beautiful and was created by God. [143]Samples explains that “truth is logically coherent and corresponds to reality; the same is true of God’s thoughts and knowledge.”[144] The world, as observed or experienced in reality is stable; the sun rises and sets each day. The world is also orderly and beautiful, there are orderly seasons and vast beauty. The world as people observe it corresponds with the Christian worldview as being stable for life, orderly, and beautiful. Samples explains how God’s world corresponds with the Bible “when understood and interpreted properly, the knowledge revealed by God in general revelation (via the created order) corresponds to the truth revealed by God in special revelation (Scripture).”[145] What can be observed by mankind corresponds with reality and Scripture to pass the correspondence truth test. Furthermore, the coherence of the Christian worldview has cumulative strength as the answers to worldview rubric questions one and two are building a coherent case that corresponds with reality in support of the biblical worldview.

 

 

 

Chapter 3: Morality or What is Wrong? What is Mankind’s Problem?

What is wrong? In Smith’s book Developing A Biblical Worldview, Smith states, “What is the big problem in life, the one big issue with which everyone must struggle and that must be resolved if life is to be lived properly?”[146] There is no doubt that people fall short and have problems, whether those problems are war, disease, tension, or even death. Mankind suffers from serious problems. Chapter three will explore these problems based on the worldview as taught by new age guru and spiritual teacher Deepak Chopra, and the biblical Christian worldview.

Chopra’s Worldview Rubric Question Three

What is wrong according to Deepak Chopra? Chopra believes the reasons there are problems in the world are: 1) People have forgotten who they are, and, 2) People believe they are separate from others, and, 3) people take the illusion of reality as real when it is not. [147]  As a reminder from chapter one of this thesis, Chopra believes all people are one, and connected, not separated but different disguises of the same self. [148] In short, all people have a serious flaw in perception, and Chopra has all the answers. Chopra teaches that “Self-referral” is the correct reality when one identifies and exalts themselves as divine, or the self with a capital S.[149] He explains that in “Self-referral,” one is living in harmony with the universe, and there is no separation with the creator human being and the impersonal “field of energy.”[150]  The problem, according to Chopra, or where people go wrong is when they identify themselves with objects outside themselves, like people, places, situations, and things.[151] Chopra calls identification with the outer reality of the world as “object-referral,” and he teaches that object-referral is a fear-based struggle that is one of the primary causes for the problem with humanity.[152] Chopra teaches that when people identify with things outside themselves (people, places, situations and things) then that is where humanities problems originate.

Chopra offers another “secret” of what the problem is with humanity in chapter five of his book The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life. Chopra titles chapter five, “The Cause of Suffering is Unreality.”[153] Chopra then states, “reality is whatever you identify with.”[154] Chopra believes everyone’s reality is self-created. Chopra believes people suffer if they have the wrong perspective by not knowing reality, clinging to unreality, being afraid, identifying with an imaginary self, and being fearful of death.[155] Chopra has identified another problem with humanity, as they associate with unreality they suffer.

Chopra calls the problem of humanity the identification with “object-referral” while in his Book of Secrets he calls it “unreality.” Chopra explains more about the problem of “unreality,” or the “illusion of the material world.”[156] He states, “we need to look to Jesus’s teaching that the world is an illusion; if material things are a dream, it makes sense to pay them no heed.”[157] Chopra is consistent with his defined problem of the world in his teachings that the world humanity perceives with their senses is not the real world, but an illusion. The below Bible verse is understood by Chopra to demonstrate that Jesus agreed with him that the problem with the world—is that reality is not perceivable by human senses and people are not able to interpret outer reality or anything as real.

So his brothers said to him, “Leave here and go to Judea, that your disciples also may see the works you are doing. For no one works in secret if he seeks to be known openly. If you do these things, show yourself to the world.” For not even his brothers believed in him. Jesus said to them, “My time has not yet come, but your time is always here. The world cannot hate you, but it hates me because I testify about it that its works are evil. (John 7:3-7 ESV).

 

Chopra interprets the above passage as one of Jesus’s harshest denunciations of the world, concluding the whole world as people experience it is unreality or a mere illusion.[158] The problem, according to Chopra, is people interpret the outer world literally instead of as an illusion. Chopra explains the above Bible verse in a way that reveals that Jesus wanted his disciples to evolve into oneness, unity consciousness, or union with God; any other life in the material realm was, according to Chopra, steeped in illusion.[159] Chopra goes on to give numerous more Bible verse examples in his book The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore, explaining how Jesus completely agrees with all the teachings of Chopra in defining the problem of humanity from the exact same perspective as also understood by Chopra.

To conclude, Chopra believes that the problem, or what is wrong with humanity is their perspective. He believes that people have a serious problem and are wrong when perceiving reality. Chopra believes people fail when they interpret the world literally when it is an illusion, that is the main problem with humanity. Also, Chopra believes that people believe in the illusion of the world as being filled with separate beings, when in the reality Chopra teaches, everyone is the same soul in different disguises, this is the primary problem in Chopra’s worldview. [160] Chopra believes all people are the same drops of water in the ocean of impersonal oneness. Now that Chopra’s answers to the problem of “what is wrong” with humanity have been answered, it is time to assess the Christian worldview and its answers to the problems of humanity and the world.

Christian Worldview Rubric Question Three

What is the problem and what is wrong with humanity from the Christian worldview? Paradise lost?[161] James Sire writes, “If human beings are to be moral, they must have an opportunity to be immoral. On that hangs the tragedy of the human race. For in their freedom, Adam and Eve turned from God. Genesis 3 tells the story.”[162] Many worldviews responses can attempt to answer worldview rubric question three of what is wrong: however, their answers range from education to the economy; Smith explains “only God’s Word, the Bible, offers the real answer, and it can be expressed in one word: sin.”[163] Smith goes on to say that there is just one problem in the world, “sin leads us to believe that the problem is anything and everything else but sin.”[164] In his book, The Problem of Pain, C.S. Lewis explains the fall of humanity as, “according to that doctrine, man is now a horror to God and to himself and a creature ill-adapted to the universe not because God made him so but because he has made himself so by the abuse of his free will.”[165]

So, what is sin? Sin is the failure to follow God’s law, his moral code, and his rules in how to behave and act; in other words, sin is a complete contradiction to the goodness of God.[166] The Christian worldview teaches, “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Rom. 3:23). Sin started with the first people in the garden of Eden, when they chose to disobey God, and since the first sin, all people have a sin nature. Acknowledging oneself as a sinner, and the overarching problem of sin is a part of the simple wisdom of the Christian worldview.[167] Smith goes on to say, “we must learn to see it, (sin) from God’s perspective, in every area of life.”[168] To see how people are sinful by nature from God’s point of view. According to the Christian worldview, sin is everywhere from the environment to culture, everything in the world, and everyone is tainted by sin.[169] The problem of sin, or falling short of God’s glory can also be explained as “not only are the consequences of human sin and rebellion catastrophic; the consequences are universal. We live in a fallen world, amid fallen people.”[170] Despite the issue of sin, fallen humanity still retains in-part, the likeness of their creator.[171] Sin damaged everything in the world; however, God still provided provisions (clothing) for Adam and Eve (Gen. 3:21).

Sire explains, “human beings were created with a capacity for self-determination.”[172] People can choose to exist as autonomous and independent from God, even though they owe thanks to God for everything, and for all of life itself.[173] Jesus speaks of the choice of autonomy from God, when he speaks of the devil in John 8:44 when he says, “You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks out of his own character, for he is a liar and the father of lies” (John 8:44 ESV). Thomas Aquinas states in his writings On Evil, “Does the devil cause sin? It seems that he does, for the following reasons: death entered the world through the devil’s envy. But death is the consequence of sin. Therefore, the devil causes sin.”[174]

Francis Schaeffer explains John 8:44 in his book Genesis in Space and Time as “the point is that the devil does not abide, does not stand in the truth. Rather, he is the liar behind all liars and stands in the lie back of all lies—that the creature can be equal with God.”[175] Schaeffer continues, “in other words, you choose to be in Satan’s parade.”[176]People, when they sin, or choose to be separate from God fall the same as the devil fell.[177] In C.S. Lewis’s book, Miracles Lewis states “Death is the result of sin and the triumph of Satan.”[178] This is the sin nature and problem that mankind faces, what is wrong is the nature of human beings to think their ways are wiser than God’s (Proverbs 12:15).

According to the Christian worldview, the answer to worldview rubric question three is sin. Sin is the problem people face in the world. Sin is what is wrong with everything. Now, that each worldview has answered rubric question three of what is the problem, or what is wrong with humanity, it is time to evaluate how each worldview corresponds to reality.

Correspond to Reality? Cumulative Coherence?

Kenneth Samples says, “eastern religion asserts that human beings suffer from a type of metaphysical amnesia—an ignorance of their divine nature.”[179] Samples assessment matches that which Chopra also teaches, that the problem with mankind is they have forgotten who they are.[180] Eastern religions and Chopra teach that the world is an illusion, there is only false knowledge here on earth and humanity is deceived in their perception.[181] Does the worldview that Chopra teach correspond to reality? Samples states, “first, the assertion that human beings are divine and suffer from a severe case of metaphysical amnesia is completely foreign to virtually everyone’s experience and awareness.”[182]Samples continues, “Second, the assertion that the material, physical universe is an illusion completely undercuts the correspondence test.”[183] Chopra’s worldview completely fails the correspondence test in explaining what is wrong, or what is the problem in the world. Chopra’s explanation does not reflect the reality that people experience. In physical human reality, there is order, and people can navigate in cars and travel and not crash into one another in the chaos of an illusion.

Is Chopra’s answer to rubric question three coherent? Chopra believes all reality is undifferentiated oneness, without separation or distinctions. [184] Yet his philosophy distinguishes a distinct human self as being one with the intelligence of the cosmos.[185] Remember in chapter two, when Chopra stated, “Are you in my dream or am I in yours—or are we trapped in some bizarre combination of each other’s personal version of events?”[186] Here, in his dream example, he is acknowledging that there is separation, which corresponds to the reality we all perceive and he acknowledges that reality in his comment. However, he also teaches that the sense of separation is an illusory experience, and the ultimate reality is oneness. His logic is incoherent as he teaches ultimate oneness with the universe yet acknowledges separation.[187]

Chopra’s worldview has failed the correspondence theory test and coherence test in all three rubric questions. His cumulative worldview definition has also fallen short as cumulatively his answers have failed all of the tests. Therefore, his worldview does not stack up coherently nor does it correspond with the reality people experience in life on earth. Next, to assess the Christian worldview’s answer to worldview rubric question three of, what is wrong?

Does the biblical worldview of fallen man from sin adequately answer rubric question three of what is the problem; and does this answer correspond to reality and is it coherent? Human beings are paradoxical in nature, made in the likeness of God, capable of love, yet also able to perform heinous acts.[188] Humans can be both the love of ones’ life, and a complete thorn in ones’ side all at the same time, as with the old cliché of the “love-hate,” relationship. It does not take long of living on earth for people to experience the changing tides of relationships produced by sin and the fall. The problem of sin, and fallen humanity corresponds with reality for people on earth. All people have been hurt by another person, and have experienced the fallout from sin.

The biblical worldview explains that mankind is made in God’s likeness and different than animals, yet mankind is also fallen and sinful; and this perspective from the Christian worldview does correspond with reality. The Christian worldview explains why all people can sometimes be great, and other times be not so great. The Christian worldview is also coherent, as it does not contradict itself with faulty logic, it explains the greatness and wretchedness of humanity which corresponds with the outer world. Cumulatively, the Christian worldview has answered the first three worldview rubric questions in a manner that corresponds with the reality people share in and experience on earth, and it is coherent and not contradictory in its explanations.

Now that worldview rubric question three of “the problem” has been addressed by both Chopra and the biblical Christian worldview, it is time to research what each worldview delivers as the answer. Chapter four will cover worldview rubric question four. What is mankind’s destiny? What is the answer? What is the end?

Chapter 4: Destiny, or What is the Answer? What is Mankind’s End?

The journey of worldview analysis and evaluation is on the final worldview rubric question. What is the destiny, the answer or the end? Worldview scholar Smith explains, “When we look at the answers to problems, we find that they are of two kinds. Some answers are found within the problem itself. Others must come from outside.”[189] Smith has eloquently debriefed what chapter four will be about with regards to the worldview of Chopra and the Christian worldview. Smith continues to introduce chapter four in writing, “some of the world’s religions try to fix our human problem by making internal changes within us, through meditation practices, rituals or good works. They may change us, but they will not solve the sin problem any more than adjusting the rearview mirror will solve the problem of an empty gas tank.”[190] Smith goes on with his car metaphor by explaining the car needs gas to solve its problem, and the solution to mankind’s problem does not come from within, but like the car from an outside source. Now to first evaluate the worldview of Chopra, and his solution to the problem of the world.

Chopra Worldview Rubric Question Four

Chopra writes about the dilemma of the world by stating “religion cannot solve this dilemma; it has had its chances already.” But spirituality can.”[191] Chopra continues, “we need to go back to the source of religion. The source isn’t God. It’s consciousness.”[192] Chopra states the ancient wisdom philosophies of 5000 years ago had it right with an impersonal “god” who permeates every fiber of humanities being.[193] Chopra states the inner journey of consciousness can take one deeper than outer illusory realities, solving the problems of the world.[194] Through inner spirituality work, the inner world and outer world meld into one state of being that transcends space and time into the field of infinite possibilities, this is the spiritual solution as Chopra teaches.[195]

Chopra writes more on mankind’s perspective which is the needed change for the worlds’ problems, “we make a mistake about God when we think that his infinity is somehow larger than the universe. Infinity is larger than the largest and smaller than the smallest.”[196] Chopra believes and teaches the answer to mankind is within mankind’s perception, “relinquish your attachment to the known, step into the unknown, and you will step into the field of all possibilities.”[197]

Another way Chopra teaches the solution to mankind’s woes is by true freedom and “true freedom occurs only in nonlocal awareness.”[198] He continues by stating “happiness lies outside me, in the domain of nonlocal awareness.”[199]The source of answers to mankind’s issues are nonlocal, detached, impersonal, universal, beyond change and made of essence.[200] Chopra states, “you cannot be truly free if your interactions with the universe are personal because a person is a limited package.”[201] The hidden reality, the answer, according to Chopra is that “you are the universe,” and once that perspective is realized and lived out by humanity than people will face infinite hope and joy in creation.[202]

To conclude, Chopra teaches that the answer to worldview rubric question four is within the human mind and perception. Chopra believes that religion had its chance and failed, but spirituality from the ancient wisdom traditions from 5000 years ago hold the secret answer to mankind’s problem. [203] Once people realize that “they are the universe,” they will live in joy and harmony. [204]

Christian Worldview Rubric Question Four

How does the Christian worldview answer rubric question four of what is the answer to humanities problems? Recall Smith’s gasoline in the car analogy at the beginning of chapter four. He explained that changing the rearview mirror doesn’t solve the problem of being out of gas. [205] The Christian worldview provides the solution that God intervened into mankind’s problem with the solution of grace, or essentially, God offered to pay for the gas needed to fix the car problem.[206]

In Harold Netland’s book Encountering Religious Pluralism: The Challenge to Christian Faith and Mission,Netland writes, “The Christian faith is based upon the conviction that God has revealed truth about himself and humankind—truth centered in the person and work of Jesus Christ that needs to be both believed and acted upon if sinful human beings are to be restored to a proper relationship with their creator.”[207] In other words, God has offered to pay for and fix the broken car, but mankind must accept and act on his gracious offer. Gasoline must be payed for by someone and not earned from inner realization and outer works.[208] Humanity who accepts Jesus is under grace, but not yet glorified which theologians refer to “already and “not yet.”[209] As Ryken states, “God has already accomplished our redemption in Christ, but he has not yet fulfilled all of the promises of his coming kingdom.”[210]

Smith states, “God’s solution to the sin problem is Jesus Christ” (Rom 5:8; 2 Cor 5:19).[211] If death, which was caused by Satan and sin was the problem for mankind, than Jesus conquered death on the cross, thus defeating Satan and solving humanities sin problem.[212] Death is not the problem for humanity, but the result of the problem, just like the car not working is a result of being out of gas.[213] The solution to sin, is Jesus which results in being born again, new creatures, new hearts, new minds, regeneration and everlasting life.[214] Saving grace, or the answer to humanities problem comes not from inner works or spiritual practices like “being good,” but through faith in what Jesus did on the cross and a change of focus from self to Christ.[215] People must respond to what Jesus did, which is where repentance and faith come into the equation.[216]

In Leslie Newbigin’s book Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western Culture, he states “If the cross is the end, then there is no future.”[217] Thankfully, for humanity, the cross is not the end to the problem for humanity, but the resurrection is the answer.[218] Newbigin goes on to write, “the resurrection is the revelation to chosen witnesses of the fact that Jesus who died on the cross is indeed king—conqueror of death and sin, Lord and Savior to all.”[219] The devil, who caused sin, was defeated by Jesus Christ who offered a solution to sin in those who have faith and repent, by paying for the gas so to say, and solving mankind’s problem with hope and everlasting life by grace through faith.

The Christian worldview provides an answer, to worldview rubric question number four, of what is the end or what is the answer? As stated above, “God has already accomplished our redemption in Christ, but he has not yet fulfilled all of the promises of his coming kingdom.”[220] Christ provides a solution to the problem of sin as salvation through him by grace through faith. And the final end, which is not yet materialized as the Bible says, is the glorification of God’s creation with the new heavens and the new earth (Isa 65:17, Rev. 21). The Christian answer to the problem of the world, simply put, is Jesus Christ. Now that each worldview has answered rubric question four, it is time to evaluate the answers for how they correspond to reality, cohere, and how their cumulative case is adding up.

Correspond with Reality? Coherent? Cumulative Coherence?

How do the two worldviews stack up with regards to rubric question four? What is the answer to all of mankind’s problems? How do the answers correspond to reality? The ability for the human mind to be logical, coherent, and rational develops from traditions that grow from and value the experience of previous generations.[221] To be able to value previous generations and their experiences, one must believe that the correspondence view of truth can prove with objective reality if something is true or false.[222] Keep this in mind as Chopra states the ancient wisdom philosophies of 5000 years ago had it right with an impersonal “god” who permeates every fiber of humanities being.[223] Next, he states, “relinquish your attachment to the known, step into the unknown, and you will step into the field of all possibilities.”[224]Which is it? The known ancient wisdom philosophies or the unknown field of possibilities? If Chopra knows the ancient wisdom philosophies are correct, then how could he step into the unknown? The unknown would then be known. His logic is incoherent. If he knows the way, and is teaching it in his book, it is no longer the unknown. Once the unknown is known it is no longer unknown.

Chopra attacks Christianity, by saying that religion cannot solve the problems of the world, they have had their chance already for the last 2000 years and have failed. [225] But then he states that spirituality from ancient wisdom from 5000 years ago can solve the problem. [226] By his logic, he refutes his own argument. Since the spiritual traditions he speaks of are more than twice as old of the religion he dismisses as a failure. By his own logic, spiritual traditions have had 5000 years to solve the problem of mankind, and they have not succeeded, for more than twice as long as Christianity, so the spiritual traditions he knows of and teaches have utterly failed in comparison. His logic once again does not make sense. Chopra’s cumulative answers to all of the worldview rubric questions are incoherent.

Chopra says to people, “you are the universe,” you are one with everything and there is no separation, this is his answer to the problem of the world, and humanity needs to realize they are the universe. [227] In the next instance Chopra states “happiness lies outside me, in the domain of nonlocal awareness.”[228] If people are one with the whole of the universe, how is happiness outside of them? So, now he is stating he is a separate being, and happiness is nonlocal or impersonal. Then he writes, “you cannot be truly free if your interactions with the universe are personal because a person is a limited package.”[229] Chopra’s teachings are all over the place, from you are the universe, to acknowledging that there are individual people. Which is it?

Chopra’s teaching does not correspond to reality as people perceive it. To understand his teachings, and to live by them, one must give up the notion of their perceptions and the outer world as reality. A Chopra follower may act like they live by Chopra’s teachings, but once someone robs them, or murders a loved one, the Chopra worldview they believe in is no longer perceiving the world as an illusion. Suddenly, when harmed or victimized, the outer reality becomes real to the Chopra follower, and they want justice. Chopra’s worldview once again falls flat, failing all the basic logic tests.

Distinctly different from Chopra’s worldview exists the Christian worldview, and a key difference as Smith pointed out previously, is the Christian worldview is an outer answer. [230] Martin Luther writes in Luther’s Small Catechism that, “no one is self-sufficient, each one of us receives life and support as a gift from outside ourselves.”[231]This is a core difference in each worldview, and as far as people can observe, no one has just come into being on the planet without having a mother, or scientist to bring them into existence. So far, the statement made by Luther and the insight from Smith about the Christian worldview corresponds to reality. Life and support come from outside, not inside; people do not exist in a vacuum. People all come from parents, and support comes from food, housing, education and love that one cannot provide to themselves solely, it must be provided from outside themselves.

The Christian worldview states that “God has already accomplished our redemption in Christ, but he has not yetfulfilled all of the promises of his coming kingdom.”[232] This statement of belief can certainly reflect the reality of the world as it is still fallen, yet despite the fall, Christians live with a hope and understanding of why things are as they are. Christians have faith that they are redeemed, and understand that the glorification has not yet happened, but they still exist in the reality of the world. To illustrate, a comparison can be made that was made in the Chopra worldview. If a Christian is robbed, or their loved one is murdered, it is not illusory or meaningless, but the terrible events described above actually coheres with the Christian worldview that the world is fallen. Thus far, the Christian worldview is coherent and corresponds with all of reality the good and the bad.

The Christian worldview explains that the problem is sin, which results in people being robbed, murdered, and even dying, (this corresponds with reality) and the solution to sin cannot come from within. Just like the car needing gas to work, the gas comes from outside the car (this corresponds to reality), so does mankind’s solution to the problem of sin come from outside of people. Recall Chopra’s statement of how a 5000-year-old ancient wisdom-based spirituality solves the problems of the world, but 2000-year-old religion has failed. If Chopra’s 5000-year-old ancient wisdom spirituality worked, this paper would not exist, and worldview would be a nonissue. However, mankind still has a problem. Now, Chopra would say, if the 2000-year-old religion of Christianity worked, then there would be no problem today. However, Chopra is missing the definition of what Jesus did and the timeline of Christianity. Jesus did not promise that this world would be perfect (until there is a new heaven and new earth which has not yet come). Jesus explained this world would be like a painful birth canal, and Christ offered redemption and glorification for life after this world for those who believed in him and repented. So, if Chopra kept what the Christian worldview said about the problem in context, he would observe it does correspond with reality.

The resurrection of Jesus is the key answer according to the Christian worldview. The resurrection of Christ solves the problem of worldview rubric question four.[233] There is a solution to the problem of sin, that solution is Jesus, he is the answer to what is wrong. Jesus is the solution to mankind’s problem, but mankind must respond to him. The Christian worldview has made a coherent case, it is cumulatively strong, and does not contradict itself. The Christian worldview corresponds to observable reality. The Christian worldview has passed all the basic worldview rubric tests, while Chopra’s worldview has failed all of the basic worldview rubric tests.

Conclusion

            In J.P. Moreland’s book Love your God with All your Mind he speaks of the importance for Christians to study and know God’s Word, while at the same time exposing the emergent trend of anti-intellectualism that is becoming more prevalent each day.[234] The use of a worldview rubric that 1) corresponds to reality, and 2) is coherent, is one way to combat the spread of anti-intellectualism, and defend the coherence of the Christian faith in a diplomatic and fair approach. The use of a worldview rubric evens the “playing-field,” of the worldview assessment and allows each worldview to be evaluated based on the same rubric-based criteria.

In this thesis, the coherent and intellectually valid worldview of the biblical Christian worldview was compared in a side by side manner to the anti-intellectual worldview of pop-culture spiritual “guru” Deepak Chopra. Each worldview was defined and tested against the four-question worldview rubric to determine how each worldview corresponds to the truth of reality, and how coherent each worldview is. The results of this thesis overwhelming demonstrate that the Christian worldview corresponds to reality, or in other words, the Christian worldview explains why things are as they are in the world that people live in. The Christian worldview is also coherent and builds on itself is a non-contradictory manner, further explaining things as they are. The Christian worldview gives inherent value and worth to all people as image bearers of God. The Christian worldview also explains that people are both made in the likeness of God and fallen, which corresponds to reality of what the problem is in the world. The biblical Christian worldview explains the reality of the world, and the ability for people to know God’s orderly world. Lastly, the Christian worldview explains a solution that makes sense and corresponds with reality. The Christian worldview passed all the worldview rubric questions coherently and was never contradictory of itself. It also corresponded to the reality of the world, or corresponded to the truth of what people experience in their lives on earth.

Chopra’s worldview, while at times was some-what poetic, and idealistic, did not correspond to reality nor was it coherent. Chopra’s view often contradicted itself, and did not explain the reality of the world that is experienced from the human vantage point. If the world is a mere illusion, as Chopra teaches, then one would expect a Chopra devotee to not be bothered if they were a victim of crime. If a Chopra worldview devotee  had a loved one or child who was murdered; why would it matter to them if this world were really just an illusion that exists in the human mind? However, that worldview of illusion collapses when a gun is held to a person’s head in a carjacking. In times of crisis, the Chopra illusory worldview is no longer an illusion when they are a victim of an evil crime. The illusory explanation does not correspond to reality, nor does it place importance on the inherent value and worth of people.

Society at large agrees that murder is wrong, the Christian worldview agrees as it values all humans, however Chopra’s worldview would explain evil as illusory and created by the person as an aspect of themselves within the universe in their mind. Also, since the universe is within people, according to Chopra’s teschings, then all the evil in the world is just a part of themselves that is separate from the oneness of the universe.  Numerous times, as cited in all four chapter and demonstrated, Chopra contradicted himself in his teachings. His worldview teaches that separation is the cause of the world’s problems, yet he acknowledges he is separate. He also acknowledges that truth cannot be none, yet in his hundreds of books he reveals secret wisdom and truths for people. Lastly, the concept Chopra teaches of people being little god’s with amnesia does not correspond with reality, nor is it consistent. How could little god’s have amnesia and be separate yet one at the same time? As this thesis proved, Chopra’s worldview does not correspond to reality, is contradictory, and is incoherent. Chopra’s worldview failed all the worldview rubric questions.

Worldviews are important, and it is important for Christians to understand their worldview, and other pop-culture worldviews so they can defend the Christian faith with sensitivity and humility (2 Peter 3:15). Worldviews make up the fabric of ones’ perspective in the world, their values, and the decisions they make in life in general. It is important for Christians to be worldview experts on their own biblical worldview so that they can live it out with their decisions and actions. In a world where coherent logic and absolute truth claims are often considered “arrogant or intolerant,” the Christian must be aware of what their worldview is, and how it compares to other worldviews with reasons why theirs is the truth (2 Peter 3:15).[235] Christians must also be humble and sensitive when defending their faith (2 Peter 3:15).[236]The use of a worldview rubric that corresponds with reality and coheres logically is an important starting place for assessing any worldview, and for living out and defending the truth of the Christian worldview.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Plantinga, Alvin. God, Freedom, and Evil. Grand Rapids, MI : Eerdmans, 1974.

 

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Schaeffer, Francis A. How Should We Then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1976.

 

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[1] David K. Naugle, Worldview: The History of a Concept (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002), xiii.

[2] David K. Naugle, Worldview: The History of a Concept (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002), xix.

[3] James W. Sire, The Universe Next Door (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2009), 19.

[4] Francis Schaeffer, How Should we then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1976), 19.

[5] Francis Schaeffer, How Should we then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1976), 19.

[6] Francis Schaeffer, A Christian Manifesto (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1981), 51.

[7] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 142.

[8] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview: Seeing Things God’s Way (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 11.

[9] Ravi Zacharias International Ministries (Ravi Zacharias), “How Do You Know that Christianity is the One True worldview?” April 2, 2012, video, https://youtu.be/nWY-6xBA0Pk.

[10] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015).

[11] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 142.

[12] Ravi Zacharias International Ministries (Ravi Zacharias), “How Do You Know that Christianity is the One True worldview?” April 2, 2012, video, https://youtu.be/nWY-6xBA0Pk.

[13] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 35.

[14] J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig, Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 122.

[15] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 35.

[16] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 35.

[17] Ibid., 36.

[18] Ibid., 36.

[19] Francis Schaeffer, How Should we then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1976), 254.

[20] John P. Newport, The New Age Movement, and the Biblical Worldview: Conflict and Dialogue (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998), 1.

[21] Ravi Zacharias, Jesus among Other Gods: The Absolute Claims of the Christian Message (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2000), 7.

[22] David K. Clark, and Normal L. Geisler, Apologetics in the New Age a Christian Critique of Pantheism (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1990), 223.

[23] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 13.

[24] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 13.

[25] Walter Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House, 2003), 404.

[26] John R.W. Stott, Basic Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1971), 65.

[27] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 9.

[28] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 7.

[29] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 9.

[30] Ibid., 10.

[31] Ibid., 11.

[32] Ibid., 11-12.

[33] Ibid., 67-68.

[34] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 69.

[35] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 72.

[36] Ibid., 72.

[37] Ibid., 102.

[38] Ibid., 111.

[39] Deepak Chopra, The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore (New York, NY: Random House, 2008), 120.

[40] Deepak Chopra, The Third Jesus (New York, NY: Random House, 2008), 120.

[41] Ibid., 120.

[42] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 203.

[43] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 203.

[44] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 204.

[45] Ibid., 204.

[46] Ibid., 228.

[47] Ibid., 232.

[48] Ibid., 243.

[49] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 11-12.

[50] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 102.

[51] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 232.

[52] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 124.

[53] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 124.

[54] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets  (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 127.

[55] Ibid., 127.

[56] Ibid., 127.

[57] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 243.

[58] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 11-12.

[59] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 102.

[60] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 232.

[61] Augustine, The Confessions of Saint Augustine (San Bernardino, CA: Cassia Press, 2009), 84.

[62] L. Russ Bush, The Advancement: Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 1.

[63] James W. Sire, Naming the Elephant: Worldview as a Concept (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2015), 88.

[64] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 143.

[65] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 153.

[66] Ibid., 154.

[67] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 13.

[68] John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishing, 2008), 4.

[69] John M. Frame, Systematic Theology an Introduction to Christian Belief (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2013), 786.

[70] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 121.

[71] Michael F. Bird, Evangelical Theology: A Biblical and Systematic Introduction (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic, 2013), 127.

[72] Joel R, Beeke, and Paul M. Smalley, Reformed Systematic Theology: Revelation and God (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2019), 201.

[73] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 13.

[74] L. Russ Bush, The Advancement: Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 1.

[75] Blaise Pascal, Pensees (London: Penguin Books, 1995), 46.

[76] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 13.

[77] Ronald H. Nash, The Word of God and The Mind of Man (Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R, 1982), 111.

[78] Ronald H. Nash, The Word of God and The Mind of Man (Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R, 1982), 111.

[79] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 56.

[80] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 35.

[81] Ibid., 35.

[82] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 232.

[83] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 102.

[84] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success  (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 11-12.

[85] Ibid., 111.

[86] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 243.

[87] C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity (New York, NY: Harper One, 1952), 37.

[88] Scott K. Oliphint and William Edgar, Christian Apologetics Past and Present: A Primary Source Reader (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2009), 398.

[89] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 232.

[90] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 240.

[91] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 228.

[92] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 232.

[93] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 127.

[94] Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics: A Comprehensive Case to Biblical Faith (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 620.

[95] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 9.

[96] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 154.

[97] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 240.

[98] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 13.

[99] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 75.

[100] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 75.

[101] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 232.

[102] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 160.

[103] Douglas R. Groothuis, Unmasking the New Age (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1986), 140.

[104] Philip Graham Ryken Christian Worldview: A Students Guide (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2013), 37.

[105] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 20.

[106] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 21.

[107] Ibid., 21.

[108] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 21-22.

[109] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 22.

[110] Ibid., 25.

[111] Ibid., 22.

[112] Ibid., 31.

[113] Ibid., 31.

[114] Ibid., 31.

[115] Alvin Plantinga, God, Freedom, and Evil (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974), 2.

[116] C.N. Willborn, A Christian Worldview: Essays from a Reformed Perspective (Taylors, SC: Presbyterian Press, 2008), 44.

[117] J. Daryl Charles, Reading Genesis 1-2: An Evangelical Conversation (Pea Body, MA: Hendricksons, 2013), 8.

[118] Saint Augustine, City of God (London, England: Penguin Books, 2003), 453.

[119] L. Russ Bush, The Advancement: Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 1.

[120] John W. Wenham, The Goodness of God (London: Inter-Varsity Press, 1974), 8.

[121] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 48.

[122] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 36.

[123] Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 160.

[124] Ronald H. Nash, Worldviews in Conflict: Choosing Christianity in a World of Ideas (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1992), 36.

[125] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 36.

[126] Ronald H. Nash, Worldviews in Conflict: Choosing Christianity in a World of Ideas (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1992), 36.

[127] Ronald H. Nash, Worldviews in Conflict: Choosing Christianity in a World of Ideas (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1992), 36.

[128] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 37.

[129] Francis Schaeffer, Trilogy (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1990), 130-131.

[130] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 20.

[131] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 20.

[132] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 242.

[133] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 242.

[134] Ibid., 242.

[135] Ibid., 243.

[136] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 21.

[137] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 232.

[138] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 21-22.

[139] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 22.

[140] Ibid., 25.

[141] Ibid., 22.

[142] Ibid., 21-22.

[143] L. Russ Bush, The Advancement: Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 1.

[144] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 75.

[145] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 75.

[146] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 55.

[147] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A Practical Guide to the Fulfillment of Your Dreams (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994, 10.

[148] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994), 11-12.

[149] Ibid., 10.

[150] Ibid., 10.

[151] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994, 10.

[152] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994, 11.

[153] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 65.

[154] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 69.

[155] Ibid., 73.

[156] Deepak Chopra, The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore (New York, NY: Random House, 2008), 113.

[157] Deepak Chopra, The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore (New York, NY: Random House, 2008), 113.

[158] Deepak Chopra, The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore (New York, NY: Random House, 2008), 114.

[159] Deepak Chopra, The Third Jesus (New York, NY: Random House, 2008), 114.

[160] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994, 10.

[161] Phillip Graham Ryken, Christian Worldview: A Students Guide (Wheaton, IL” Crossway, 2013), 61.

[162] James W. Sire, Beginning with God: A Basic Introduction to the Christian Faith (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 81.

[163] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 57.

[164] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 57.

[165] C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain (New York, NY: Harper One, 1940), 63.

[166] Wayne A. Grudem, Christian Beliefs (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 62-63.

[167] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 57.

[168] C. Fred Smith, Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 57.

[169] Ibid., 58.

[170]  Tawa J. Anderson, Michael W. Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview Pursuing God’s Perspective in a Pluralistic World (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 165.

[171] Francis A. Schaeffer, The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer A Christian Worldview: Volume Two A Christian View Of The Bible as Truth (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1982), 34.

[172] James W. Sire, The Universe Next Door (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2009), 39.

[173] James W. Sire, The Universe Next Door (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2009), 39.

[174] Thomas Aquinas, On Evil (New York, NY: Oxford, 2003), 149.

[175] Francis A. Schaeffer, The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer A Christian Worldview: Volume Two A Christian View Of The Bible as Truth (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1982), 54.

[176] Francis A. Schaeffer, The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer A Christian Worldview: Volume Two A Christian View Of The Bible as Truth (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1982), 61.

[177] John MacArthur, Think Biblically: Recovering A Christian Worldview (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2003), 100.

[178] C.S. Lewis, Signature Classics (New York, NY: Harper One, 2017), 416.

[179] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 236.

[180] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994, 10.

[181] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 236.

[182] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 242.

[183] Ibid., 242.

[184] Deepak Chopra, The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore (New York, NY: Random House, 2008), 113.

[185] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 240.

[186] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets: Unlocking the Hidden Dimensions of Your Life (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 21-22.

[187] Kenneth Richard Samples, A World of Difference: Putting Christian Truth-Claims to the Worldview Test (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2007), 240.

[188] Ronald H. Nash, Worldviews in Conflict: Choosing Christianity in a World of Ideas (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1992), 47.

[189] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 75.

[190] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 75-76.

[191] Deepak Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow, War of the Worldviews (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2012), 6.

[192] Deepak Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow, War of the Worldviews (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2012), 6.

[193] Ibid., 7.

[194] Ibid., 8.

[195] Ibid., 9.

[196] Deepak Chopra, Jesus: A Story of Enlightenment (New York, NY: Harper One, 2008), 181.

[197] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994, 87.

[198] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 217.

[199] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 217.

[200] Ibid., 221.

[201] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 223.

[202] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 245.

[203] Deepak Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow, War of the Worldviews (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2012), 7.

[204] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 245.

[205] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 75-76.

[206] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 76.

[207] Harold Netland, Encountering Religious Pluralism: The Challenge to Christian Faith and Mission (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press Academic, 2001), 13.

[208] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 76.

[209] Phillip Graham Ryken, Christian Worldview: A Students Guide (Wheaton, IL” Crossway, 2013), 91.

[210] Phillip Graham Ryken, Christian Worldview: A Students Guide (Wheaton, IL” Crossway, 2013), 91.

[211] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 77.

[212] C.S. Lewis, Signature Classics (New York, NY: Harper One, 2017), 417.

[213] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 79.

[214] C. Fred Smith, Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 79.

[215] Ibid., 77.

[216] Ibid., 80.

[217] Lesslie Newbigin, Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western Culture (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1986), 127.

[218] Lesslie Newbigin, Foolishness to the Greeks (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1986), 127.

[219] Ibid., 127.

[220] Phillip Graham Ryken, Christian Worldview: A Students Guide (Wheaton, IL” Crossway, 2013), 91.

[221] Lesslie Newbigin, The Gospel in a Pluralist Society (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989), 9.

[222] Douglas Groothuis, Truth Decay: Defending Christianity Against the Challenges of Postmodernism (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 110.

[223] Deepak Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow, War of the Worldviews (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2012), 7.

[224] Deepak Chopra, Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen, 1994, 87.

[225] Deepak Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow, War of the Worldviews (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2012), 6.

[226] Deepak Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow, War of the Worldviews (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2012), 7.

[227] Deepak Chopra and Menas C. Kafatos, You are the Universe: Discovering your Cosmic Self and Why it Matters (New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2017), 245.

[228] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 217.

[229] Deepak Chopra, The Book of Secrets (New York. NY: Random House, 2004), 223.

[230] C. Fred Smith, Developing a Biblical Worldview (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2015), 75.

[231] Martin Luther. Luther’s Small Catechism, (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 2017), 156.

[232] Phillip Graham Ryken, Christian Worldview: A Students Guide (Wheaton, IL” Crossway, 2013), 91.

[233] Gary R. Habermas, The Risen Jesus and the Future Hope (USA: Rowan and Littlefield, 2003), viii.

[234] J.P. Moreland, Love your God with All your Mind (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2012), 16.

[235] Harold A. Netland, Dissonant Voices: Religious Pluralism and the Question of Truth (Vancouver, B.C.: Regent College Publishing, 1991), 314.

[236] Harold A. Netland, Dissonant Voices: Religious Pluralism and the Question of Truth (Vancouver, B.C.: Regent College Publishing, 1991), 314.