Introduction

            In this paper, the worldview of postmodernism will be evaluated, summarized, and compared to the Christian worldview using rational and logical techniques; a few of the methods utilized will include: coherent consistency, factual adequacy, existential viability, and the essential ability for the worldview to explain what it intends to explain. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate beyond doubt that postmodernism is a dangerous incoherent worldview, and the Christian worldview is coherent and explains life as it is for humans on earth. The postmodern worldview is illogical and dangerous; it renders life void of meaning or purpose. The Christian worldview is far superior providing meaning for life; it is the only worldview which is logical and livable. Each worldview will be evaluated and summarized, the Christian worldview will be defended, and the case for the Christian worldview will become crystal clear as being far superior to that of postmodernity. Before evaluating the two-opposing worldview’s, it will be necessary first to summarize what the postmodern worldview is in the following section.

 

Summary of Postmodernism

            According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, postmodernism is a western philosophy that is characterized by broad skepticism, relativism, and a general suspicion of reason.[1]According to postmodernism, “reality” is a social construction, void of God. Language creates reality, and what is real for one linguistic group may be unreal for another.[2]Some postmodernists believe that we have no way to get to reality and, since we know nothing about it, reality itself is a useless notion and, for all practical purposes, can be ignored. Postmodernists deny the existence of an objective God, and their ultimate reality is nonexistent and highly subjective at best.

 

There is no objective truth, no God’s-eye view of things.[3]Postmodernists also reject dichotomous thinking. Dichotomous thinking is when we divide things into categories like right/wrong, good/bad, true/false, real/unreal.[4]For the postmodernist, everything is relative based on individuals’ personal point of views, culture, language, etc. Today, many people deem science, math, and technology as not relative, but ethics, values, and religion are relative.[5]So, it appears that science, math, and technology are more of ultimate authority for postmodernists; however, postmodernists would likely deny any ultimate authority exists, as they deny God exists. However, when it comes to philosophy, values, morals, etc., it is common to hear things like, “This may be true for you, but not me,” and phrases like “who are you to judge?”[6]What is ironic on the notion of postmodernity is that what is defined as “objective,” is still, ultimately filtered through humans senses. Can we trust our minds to give us the truth of reality, if our minds are only a product of reality, even if they are a product achieved from a transcendent array of potential options? The answer is no.[7]

 

The postmodernist believes that “knowledge, is a construction of one’s social, linguistic structures, not a justified, truthful representation of reality by one’s mental states.”[8]Postmodernists believe that there is no point of view from which knowledge can be defined without begging the question in one’s own view.[9]Knowledge is relative unless it is science, math or technology; postmodernists deny any universal standards for logical reasoning. Postmodernists deny God, a creator, or any objective truths outside of what can be measured or explained within the narrow confines of naturalism. In education, postmodernism rejects the notion that the purpose of education is primarily to train a child’s cognitive capacity for reason in order to produce an adult capable of functioning independently in the world.[10]

 

Human beings are socially constructed complex “selfs,” not individuals according to the postmodern perspective. The self is a bundle of conditioned reflexes and social roles, like mom, wife, student, entrepreneur, etc. The Christian worldview claims, the world is not random. It has been created and is continually sustained, by God as creator. The creation is deeply beautiful and good—[11]A human is not a random biological phenomenon. Humans are more than biology and have been designed, made (and loved) by the supreme creator—God. Humans have a ‘soul’ and will not simply rot away to nothing when they die. Humans have been made in God’s likeness and have been given the role of caretaking and cultivating the creation—humanity is profoundly purposeful.[12]

 

Postmodernists reject the notion that objective moral truths exist. Everything is relative to language and culture for any moral values. Morality can be summed up to preferences, likes, and dislikes, from the postmodernists’ perspective. There is no definable morality, thus rendering life meaningless.

 

The postmodern view of the world lacks depth, purpose or reason for living; it is mechanical and depressing. The postmodernists deny God and present an essentially Godless worldview, where truth and falsehood do not exist. It is essential to begin by pointing out that there is no distinctively postmodern view of truth.[13]People function on the basis of their world view more consistently than even they themselves may realize. The problem is not outward things. The problem is having, and then acting upon, the right world view— the worldview which gives men and women the truth of what is.[14]Postmodernists deny the objective truths of God, and create self-serving relative moral guidelines; postmodernists are outraged and up in arms when it comes to protecting endangered sea turtle eggs, or being vegan to protect animals, but have no problem aborting human babies.

 

Postmodern debates thus display a paradoxical nature. Across the board, we hear, on one hand, the abstract concepts of relativism and egalitarian. On the other hand, disagreements are met not with argument, the benefit of the doubt, and the expectation that reason can prevail- but with assertion, animosity and a willingness to resort to violence. [15]Now that the postmodern worldview has been summarized, it will now be evaluated based on eight logical and coherent criterions.

                                      

 Evaluation of Postmodernism

In the following section, postmodernity will be evaluated on eight criteria as developed by the world-renowned Christian apologist Douglas Groothuis. The following criterion will display whether or not the postmodern worldview is logical, reasonable, and explains what it ought to explain.

First, one must analyze criterion one: “If a worldview asserts an essential proposition X, and X is utterly mysterious or unintelligible and sheds no light on anything (it is barely an assertion), then the assertion of X is a rational strike against that world view.”  The postmodern worldview cannot explain the morality of right and wrong, because it believes that right and wrong do not exist; therefore there is no such thing as good or bad, truth or falsehood, just a sea of opinions. Relative morality is inconsistent in the postmodern worldview. Morality is a mere personal opinion instead of a universal principle of right and wrong. Therefore, it is impossible to live out relative morality in a postmodern worldview as it lacks objective universal truths. The postmodernists does not believe that truth or falsehood exist; instead, everything is relative, subjective, or one’s own opinion, which leads to lots of mystery. The postmodern worldview cannot explain anything, because everything is subjective and not even truth is objective. Per the criterion listed above, the postmodern worldview is unintelligible and mysterious; therefore the postmodern worldview has one strike against it.

The postmodern worldview believes that rational reason is flawed because it is subjective as it is filtered through human senses which cannot be trusted and are programmed by culture and language, according to their reason, their own statement is flawed and subjective; therefore it refutes itself. The postmodernists cannot explain the cause of the world, or anything for that matter as the concepts drowns in a sea of relativity.

Second criterion two will be evaluated in two parts, part a and part b. Part a states “if a worldview affirms X, Y, Z as essential elements of that worldview, and none of the individual elements contradicts another element, the world view may be true because it is not logically inconsistent.” Next, part b of the criterion states, “if worldview X, Y, Z as essential elements, and any of these elements contradict another essential element, or is self-contradictory, this world view is necessarily false because it is logically inconsistent.”[17]Nothing is rational; therefore the postmodern viewpoint cannot be rational, logical or reasoned. If there is no point of view from which knowledge can be obtained, the postmodernists de-bunked their point of view; this is an inconsistency within the belief of postmodern thinking. If nothing is right or wrong, since it is all relative, their worldview is self-defeating, therefore not correct.

The third criterion must be examined by asking if a worldview’s essential propositions are coherent (meaningfully interconnected conceptually) if so, it is more likely to be true than if its’ essential propositions are not related in this way.  The basic idea here is what justifies a belief is the way it coheres with other beliefs in one’s noetic structure.[18]Postmodernism as a whole appears to be incoherent as everything is subjective, and nothing is rational. So, if it is all relative, it cannot be coherent. The postmodern worldview is batting zero for three thus far, and for this evaluation, eight strikes and the worldview is out.

Criterion four will evaluate the greater the extent to which a worldview’s essential factual claims can be established in various empirical, scientific, and historical ways, the greater the likelihood this worldview is valid.[19]Simply because a person claims, “This worldview works for me,” does not mean this world view is viable or true.[20]The postmodern worldview claims that everything is relative, yet in our culture and society, rape and murdering innocent people is illegal, that means it is wrong, yet what has been historically and societally labeled wrong, can be considered justifiable according to postmodern logic, or rather, lack of logic. The factual claims of postmodernism are non-existent. Strike four; postmodernity is failing as a coherent and factual worldview.

Fifth, one must evaluate if it is not actually possible to live out postmodernism in a morally or philosophically consistent way. First, there are no moral standards as everything is relative, and nothing is absolute or objective. Everything is subjective as filtered through human senses, and according to postmodernist thinking, or rather, lack of thinking, the senses cannot be trusted as rational. If the senses could not be trusted as rational, then there would be no order on highways and roads, which appear to be, for the most part, orderly. Philosophy is subjective according to postmodernism, as are morals. Nothing is absolute, and everything is personal to a cultural and socially programmed societal norm. So the postmodern worldview has five strikes because it is not moral, or consistent in any manner; it is as if postmodernity is the opposite or of morality, and consistently inconsistent.

The sixth criterion asks the question, does a postmodern worldview promote creativity, intellectual and cultural discovery or productivity? To the contrary, the postmodern worldview has humanity as a bleak existence, and we are just a result of cultural and social roles. Humans have little purpose in life; therefore with no carrots dangling, there is no incentive for discovery and productivity. There is no purpose in life in the postmodern philosophy; this lack of meaning does not inspire creativity or rational thinking. Since nothing can be sensible or reasoned, what is the purpose of thinking or being productive? Since everything is true for everyone, then what does anything matter?

I would argue that a postmodern worldview creates a world that does not care about life and work, and in general is less productive. As an entrepreneur I have witnessed that many people care little for their work; they do it to get by, pay the bills, and buy things. In Francis Schaeffer’s book, How Should We Then Live he states, “The work ethic which had meaning in the Christian framework, now became ugly as the Christian base was removed. Work became an end in itself, with no reason to work and no values to determine what to do with the products of one’s work.”[21]Most people are not creative or inspired to do work that serves anyone, but themselves. According to a 2017 Gallup poll, only 15% of the world’s population is engaged in work, meaning they enjoy their work, and do their work with pride.[22]85% of people loathe their job, so even statistics point to the postmodern outlook of the world in the workplace. Strike six; the postmodern worldview does not, therefore, create an engaged workplace with creativity, productivity or new discovery.

The seventh criterion for the postmodern worldview is pitifully sad as it asks the question, has the worldview had to adjust its claims to answer counter attacks? What is ironic about this question, is that the most modern worldview cannot agree on what postmodernism is. Since postmodernists cannot completely agree on what postmodernism is, it is impossible to defend itself since it is largely undefinable. Strike seven on the postmodern worldview; next to analyze the last criterion to see if the postmodern worldview can pass any of the criteria.

Criterion eight evaluates the postmodern worldview on the premise of simpler explanations are preferable to complex explanations. A postmodern worldview is not simple, but complicated as there are seven plus billion versions of unique worldviews on the planet right now. According to postmodernism, each persons’ viewpoint is their truth based on their culture and life experience, so this can get very complex. One can only imagine if there was a global book of each person’s subjective worldview, this project would be impossible and the book would be enormous and complex. Lastly, because postmodernism is almost undefinable according to postmodernists themselves, then it is complicated as it is a relative worldview concept with no right or wrong. Strike eight; the postmodern worldview does not pass any of the logical tests as a coherent or logical worldview. Now, with the same criterion, one must examine and evaluate the Christian worldview.

Evaluation of Christianity

In this next section, we will evaluate the Christian worldview and see how it performs against the same battery of criterions that the postmodern worldview was evaluated. It will become evident, from the evaluation that Christianity can explain and account for that which postmodernism cannot explain.

Criterion one states,  “if a worldview asserts an essential proposition X, and X is utterly mysterious or unintelligible and sheds no light on anything (it is barely an assertion), then the assertion of X is a rational strike against that world view.”[23]The Christian worldview can clearly explain the morality of right and wrong, as God is the objective giver of truth. Christianity does explain what it ought to clarify without excessive mystery. Some people find the Trinity confusing or mysterious, one can explain that the Trinity is like Water: 1) God is Water 2) The Holy Spirit is steam 3) Jesus is ice; they are all water, but in different forms, it is not that mysterious and well explained. The Christian worldview clearly defines the way the truth and the life. There are no mysteries of morality, where we came from, where we are going. Compared to postmodernism, which is unclear at best, Christianity is crystal clear as to right and wrong, truth and falsehood. The Christian worldview is simple, and objective, with God as the creator of truths. There are no questions; it is rather black and white. The Christian worldview passes the first criterion, so far outperforming the postmodern worldview. The postmodern worldview cannot explain right and wrong; however, the Christian worldview effortlessly defines moral truths.

Once again, the second criterion is divided into two parts, part a and part b, part a states, “if a worldview affirms X, Y, Z as essential elements of that worldview, and none of the individual elements contradicts another element, the world view may be true because it is not logically inconsistent.” And part b states, “if worldview X, Y, Z as essential elements, and any of these elements contradict another essential element, or is self-contradictory, this world view is necessarily false because it is logically inconsistent.”[24]None of the elements of the Christian worldview contradict each other; in fact, they complement each other and are logical and objective. For example, committing adultery is not ok in the Christian worldview; there is no relative subjectivity on this matter; it is merely wrong. The Christian worldview is not self-contradicting, and the elements complement each other. The postmodern world view lacks universal truths, and is entirely subjective; it lacks any logical basis, so the Christian worldview is much more coherent and consistent. It provides an explanation for the struggles of life and intellectual consistency that can sometimes be deceivingly lacking in other readily embraced worldviews. [25]The Christian worldview is batting two for two, not striking out yet, and is already a more superior worldview to the postmodern worldview. The postmodern worldview is shaky and unstable as it bases moral objectivity on culture and individual choices rather than on objective God-given truths.

The third criterion states “if a worldview’s essential propositions are coherent (meaningfully interconnected conceptually), it is more likely to be true than if its’ essential propositions are not related in this way. Christianity is an entirely coherent God-given worldview, as the components of Christianity, and the propositional dogmas are coherent and interrelated. The Biblical truths of the Bible do not contradict each other and are universal truths for humanity to live. Postmodernism fails here in comparison, as there are no universal coherent truths or any coherence for that matter. The Christian worldview is passing the first three sets of criterion.

Criterion four explains, “the greater the extent to which a worldview’s essential factual claims can be established in various empirical, scientific, and historical ways, the greater the likelihood this worldview is valid.”[26]The Christian worldview is the cause of advancements in science, the start of universities, and the Bible is a historical document with numerous copies dating back to antiquity, verifying the accuracy. The postmodern worldview lacks any truth claims or historical claims as it is so relative and is arguably responsible for the decline of humanity and not the advancement of humanity. The Christian worldview passes the fourth criteria.

The fifth criterion explains, “for a worldview to be a likely candidate for truth, its essential propositions must be existentially viable.” The Christian worldview is existentially viable as the essential propositions give purpose for living the Christian worldview has meaning. Christianity is not philosophically hypocritical. Contrastly, postmodernism is extremely hypocritical, as it makes life completely meaningless, and also has no universal truths; they are all just relative. One could do something “wrong,” in the privacy of their own home, and justify it in their world view. This is known as philosophical hypocrisy and is a result of perpetual doublethink. The Christian worldview, therefore, passes the fifth set of criteria.

The sixth criterion asks the question, “does a Christian worldview promote creativity, intellectual and cultural discovery or productivity?” Yes, the Christian worldview is the basis of the United States, which is a mecca of creativity, from movies, new inventions, and new technologies. Societies with the Christian Worldview are primarily responsible for advancements in the sciences, music, and arts. Postmodern worldview is anti-intellectualism and is responsible for the dumbing down of people, creating complacency, and resulting in 85% of the world loathing work in the postmodern time.

Criterion seven asks, “has the worldview had to adjust its claims to answer counter attacks?” The Christian worldview has not had to adjust its viewpoints for thousands of years. The Christian worldview is the same now, as it was 1800 years ago. Contrastly, the postmodern worldview is based on shifting sands of anti-intellectualism. Postmodernism adjusts its viewpoints to anything relative and subjective. The Christian worldview is laid down by the objective truth and word of God. Thus far, the Christian worldview passes all seven criterions with flying colors compared to the incoherent postmodern worldview.

Criterion eight explains, that “simpler explanations are preferable to complex explanations.” Christianity is pure and simple with its objective God-given truth. The Christian worldview is as simple as they come, from the unchangeable objective Word of God. The Christian worldview has passed all eight tests compared to the postmodern worldview which failed all of the same eight criteria. Postmodernism is complex as it takes into consideration 7+ billion different peoples’ opinions. Postmodernism is so relative and subjective; it lacks universal objective simplicity. The Christian worldview is refreshingly simple and gives a simple explanation for the problems of the world as we will evaluate in the final section of this paper, under the category of the defense of the Christian worldview.

 

 

 

Defense of Christianity

In the following section, a defense for Christianity and the Christian worldview will be provided. An emphasis on the problem of evil and the existence of God, the resurrection, and morality will be addressed in defense of Christianity.

No one can doubt that there is a problem of evil in the world today. The postmodern worldview is unable to explain much, including why there is so much evil in the world. Many people who do not believe in a God, and may make statements such as, “If there is a God, then why does evil exist?”  First, before addressing the problem of evil, one must address the existence of God. There is no known law of nature, no known process and no known sequence of events which can cause information to originate by itself in matter.[27]Something has never arisen from nothing in nature. Therefore, there must always be a first mover. The first mover argument for the existence of God logically believes there must have been something that set everything into motion. Even scientists say that the existence of everything is a miracle, and unexplainable. With all their theories, there is nothing to explain what caused everything; the only reasonable option is that there exists a creator; thus the Christian worldview provides understanding, and answers to the question of the first mover.

Evil presents every worldview with both philosophical/theoretical and existential/problems.[28]Christianity explains evil because of humanities God-given free will, and the backdrop of original sin. Christianity is the only worldview that makes rational sense of the problem of evil in the world because humans are in a fallen world, and earth, is, merely a birthing canal for where we end up for eternity, that is, heaven or hell. The Christian worldview considers the earth as a testing ground for free will, and the choices one makes here of either denying God or worshipping Him results in where we end up for eternity. Because God is just, he gave the angels free will and eternal life, then lucifer misused his free will, and was cast from heaven to earth. The great dragon was hurled down- that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the world astray. He was hurled to the earth and his angels with him (Rev 12:9). God could have easily destroyed the fallen angel, but that would be unjust because he gave him eternal life, and all of the other angels would be like, “whoa, God took back the eternal life, I do not trust him anymore.” God created humans for a loving and intimate relationship; he does not want to force a relationship with us, so we have free will.

The Bible and the Christian worldview give a coherent reason for evil, which dates back to the fall of humanity and original sin. The Christian worldview also provides a logical answer to the first mover and the existence of God. No other worldview can account for the evil in the world besides the Christian worldview. No other worldview accounts for the justice of choices people make nor do any other worldviews provides an explanation for the root cause of evil, that is, except, the Christian worldview.

The resurrection of Jesus is another point to be mentioned when defending the Christian faith. No other religion makes the claim of resurrection, nor do any other religious figures claim to be God incarnate. Some pagan religions may claim resurrection, but they are referring plant cycles, and seasons with regard to vegetables and the coming of spring. Without the resurrection, there is no Christianity as the resurrection is what gave the apostles the where with all to build the church and die for their beliefs. The resurrection gives meaning to life; without Jesus being resurrected, life is completely void of purpose, and depressing. The resurrection is proof of Jesus’s divinity and is the key to redemption for humanity and the problem of evil in the fallen world. Why else would eleven of the twelve apostles die gruesome martyr deaths for their belief in Jesus if he were not whom he claimed to be, and if they did not see him arise from the dead? No other religion or worldview has made such an impact in the world as the story of Jesus, and the eye witness documented accounts of his resurrection. The resurrection of Jesus is factual and verifiable.

Finally, an element of postmodern thought that is probably becoming more appealing for professing Christians in North America is moral relativism; if there are no objective moral values, and morality is simply created by a community, then there is no objective right or wrong, no objective good and evil.[29]Next, it is imperative to defend truth and morality, which can only be done through a Christian worldview with God as the objective authority. True spirituality covers all of reality. There are things the Bible tells us as absolutes which are sinful, which do not conform to the character of God.[30]The Christian worldview provides absolute truths, and the Bible is a roadmap to living a moral life. Just as parents would not leave children home alone without instructions, God did not leave his children here on earth without instructions. The Bible gives instructions on how to be in relationships, and how to live with the highest moral code known on the planet.

Without God, there are no moral truths. Atheism, pantheism, and other worldviews, like postmodernism make morality a relative concept, which means there is no such thing as right or wrong. When morality is relative, then moral truths like adultery and murder become ok based on societal beliefs and individual preferences. In the U.S. today we see pornography normalized, which is a form of adultery in lusting after others, as well as fornication being normalized. We also see the justification of murder, in the form of abortion being culturally acceptable. Postmodernism can easily justify both pornography and the killing of unborn babies as is evident in the postmodern culture of America. The Bible and Word of God make it clear that pornography and killing unborn babies is not morally ok, even though the postmodern worldview justifies these atrocities.

The postmodern worldview cannot compare with Christian morality as its shallow philosophy is built on subjectivity compared to the Christian worldview which is objectively rooted in God. The existence of God creates objective truth rather than subjective postmodern reality.  A worldview void of God leaves moral values up to man, who is fallen, corrupt, and selfish. Therefore, there must be an absolute God in order to have absolute truths and morals that are worthy and reasonable.

Conclusion

In Conclusion, the worldview of postmodernism was summarized and evaluated, then compared to the Christian worldview using the same criteria. From the evaluation, one can ascertain that the postmodern worldview is illogical, and lacking truth morality, and purpose for life. Any worldview, or system of thought whether it is Christianity, modernism, postmodernism, Judaism, New Age, or whatever requires faith in an ultimate principle as a source of truth, knowledge, and morality.[31]The Christian worldview explains what it ought to explain; it explains evil, and why the world is the way it is. The Christian worldview is also filled with hope, meaning, and purpose for life. The evaluation of the Christian worldview and defense of Christianity makes a clear case that the Christian worldview is a far superior worldview option for life as it provides moral and absolute truths, purpose for life, and answers to the profound question’s humanity ponders of “where did we come from” and “where are we going?”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Anderson J. Tawa, Clark W. Michael, and David K. Naugle. An Introduction to Christian Worldview. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017.

Moreland, J.P., and William Lane Craig. Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017.

Groothuis, Douglas. “Why Truth Matters Most: An Apologetic For Truth seeking in Modern Times.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 47, no.3 (2004): 441-454.

Siniscalchi, Glenn B. Postmodernism and the need for Rational Apologetics in a Post Conciliar Church.The Heythrop Journal 52 (2011): 751-771. Accessed date April 5, 2019. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1111/j.1468-2265.2011.00677.x

Edgar, William, and K. Scott Oliphint. Christian Apologetics Past and Present a Primary Source Reader Volume 2 from 1500. Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2011.

McDowell, Sean. Apologetics for a New Generation. Eugene Oregon: Harvest House Publishers, 2009.

Schaeffer, Francis A. How Should We Then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture. Wheaton: Crossway, 1976.

Kelly, Stewart E., and James K. Dew Jr. Understanding Postmodernism. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017.

Hicks, Stephan. Explaining Postmodernism.Roscoe, IL: Ockham’s Razor Publishing, 2018.

Kim, David, and David McCalman, Dan Fisher. “The Sacred/Secular Divide and the Christian Worldview.” Springer Science and Business no. 20, (2012): 207.

Parker, Chris. “Christian Worldview.” Nurture: the voice of the National Union of Associations for Christian Parents49, no. 4 (2015): 12.

Parker, Chris. “Christian Worldview.” Nurture: the voice of the National Union of Associations for Christian Parents49, no. 3 (2015): 12-13.

Clark, David L., and Norman L. Geisler. Apologetics in the New Age.Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 1990.

Bush, L. Russ. The Advancement Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age.Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003.

Schaeffer, Francis A. A Christian Manifesto. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1891.

Clifton Jim. “The World’s Broken Workplace.” The Chairman’s Blog, June 13th, (2017). Accessed date April 29th, 2019.https://news.gallup.com/opinion/chairman/212045/world-broken-workplace.aspx

 

[1]Encyclopedia Britannica online. Accessed date April 5th, 2019. https://britannica.com/topic/postmodernism-philosophy

[2]J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig, Philosophical Foundations for a Christian World View (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 133.

[3]J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig, Philosophical Foundations Christian (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 133.

[4]J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig, Philosophical Foundations for a Christian World View (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 133.

[5]Sean McDowell, Apologetics for a New Generation (Eugene: Harvest House Publishers, 2009), 15.

[6]Sean McDowell, Apologetics for a New Generation (Eugene: Harvest House Publishers, 2009), 16.

[7] Russ L. Bush, The Advancement Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age(Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 61.

 

[8]J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig, Philosophical Foundations for a Christian World View (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 134.

[9]Sean McDowell, Apologetics for a New Generation (Eugene: Harvest House Publishers, 2009), 15.

[10]Stephen Hicks, Explaining Postmodernism(Roscoe, IL: Ockham’s Razor Publishing, 2018), 17.

[11]Chris Parker, “Christian Worldview,”Nurture: the voice of the National Union of Associations for Christian Parents49, no. 3 (2015): 12-13.

[12]Chris Parker, “Christian Worldview,” Nurture: the voice of the National Union of Associations for Christian Parents 49, no. 3 (2015): 12-13.

[13]Stewart E. Kelly and James K. Dew Jr, Understanding Postmodernism (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 215.

[14]Francis A. Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture(Wheaton: Crossway, 1976), 254.

[15]Stephen Hicks, Explaining Postmodernism(Roscoe, IL: Ockham’s Razor Publishing, 2018), 20.

[16]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 53.

[17]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 53.

[18]J.P. Moreland and William Lane Craig, Philosophical Foundations for a Christian World View (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2017), 110.

[19]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 55.

[20]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 53.

[21]Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture, (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1976), 246.

[22]Jim Clifton, “The World’s Broken Workplace,” The Chairman’s Blog, June 13th, (2017), accessed date April 29th, 2019, https://news.gallup.com/opinion/chairman/212045/world-broken-workplace.aspx

[23]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 53.

[24]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 53.

[25]Chris Parker, “Christian Worldview,” Nurture: the voice of the National Union of Associations for Christian Parents 49, no. 4 (2015): 12.

[26]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 55.

[27]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 315.

[28]David L. Clark and Norman L. Geisler, Apologetics in the New Age (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 1990), 203.

[29]Tawa J. Anderson, W. Michael Clark, and David K. Naugle, An Introduction to Christian Worldview (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2017), 265.

[30]Francis Schaeffer, A Christian Manifesto (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1981), 19.

[31]David Kim, David McCalman, Dan Fisher, “The Sacred/Secular Divide and the Christian Worldview,” Springer Science and Business no. 20, (2012): 207.


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