Thomas Aquinas Five Ways Argument is still applicable Today


This writing will demonstrate that the historic Christian apologist, Thomas Aquinas, and his Five Way argument provides strong reasoning for the existence of God that has implications for the pantheistic new age spiritual movement. The purpose of this paper is to expose the new age pantheistic spiritual worldview as illogical and demonstrate Thomas Aquinas’ Five Way argument as a tool useful in modern times to rationally prove the existence of God. Aquinas’ Five Way argument is still useful and needed in today’s pantheistic culture. Pantheism etymologically means, “All is God.”[1]The current spiritual landscape of incoherent “choose your own feel-good” spiritual beliefs has caused many to believe in a false notion of God. New age thinks, “God is I, I am God.”[2] Today, many people believe the “universe,” is God, and that people are God’s and goddesses in embryo with eternal life no matter their actions. Listen again to the words of Deepak Chopra on this purpose of life. He makes this assertion in the early part of his book: “In reality, we are divinity in disguise, and the gods and goddesses in embryo that are contained within us seek to be fully materialized. True success is, therefore, the experience of the miraculous. It is the unfolding of the divinity within us.[3]

The lack of accountability, logic, and meaning for life from the new age worldview creates a lethal cocktail which results in narcissism and zero responsibility for actions because, according to the new age, “this world is an illusion, and we are divine god’s who have forgotten our way.” The Five Ways play into a way of understanding God that has a many-sided explanatory power but is at the same time profoundly simple.[4]

I was once a “new ager,” with thousands of hours of training including the highest level of education at new age guru Deepak Chopra’s, Chopra University. After a supernatural experience with the Holy Spirit, I was born again in Christ seeing the deception of new age spirituality, and I am called to expose the truth of new age deception. In the new age, people pick and choose spiritual beliefs that “resonate,” with them based on the latest fad or guru. New age spirituality is a huge money-making industry that is illogical and unsatisfying with shallow roots.

The historic Thomas Aquinas from 1225-1274 and his essential Five Ways to prove God’s existence is a successful tool to refute modern day pantheistic new age beliefs. Aquinas’ Five Way argument is still applicable today, as it was 800 years ago. This paper will go into depth on simplifying Aquinas’s five proofs for God in easy to understand language; then proof by proof, the Five Ways will be applied to new age spirituality exposing the lack of logic or reason. First, it is imperative to summarize and review Aquinas’ Five proofs in easy to understand language for the existence of God, then after each summary, it will be applied to the problem of new age spirituality.



Five Proofs

Thomas Aquinas was born in 1225 and died in 1274. He is most well-known for his doctrinal synthesis the Summa Contra Gentiles.[5]Thomas Aquinas wrote about Five Ways in which God can be logically proven, or understood; in the following sections, the Five Proofs of Aquinas will be summarized in an easy to understand language. The Below Excerpt by Lydia Schumacher From the University of Edinburgh provides a simple overview summary of the Five Ways developed by Aquinas to philosophically prove God.

The first proof, for example, argues from natural entities like a bird or the world itself that are ‘in motion,’ as it were, to a first mover who places and sustains all things in motion, namely, God. The second, related, proof, moves from created effects to a divine efficient or initiating cause of those effects. The third argues from contingent beings and circumstances – or things which did not have to exist, such as all objects of human experience are – to the existence of one being who is the necessary source of all contingent realities. The fourth argues from the gradation of beings to a highest being. This gradation may refer either to the ascending levels of truth and goodness that can be identified in various ideas, for example, or to the increasing degrees of complexity we observe in rocks, plants, animals, humans, and angels. According to Aquinas, these degrees presuppose a maximal being that is the source of all things and cannot be outranked by anything. The fifth way, which is more of a teleological than a cosmological argument, posits the existence of a divine being on the basis of the order or purpose which natural beings and the natural world exhibit.[6]

Now that a basic overview of the Five-Way argument is summarized, it will be essential to go through each proof, point by point. First Aquinas’ historical argument will be presented, then each case will be compared directly to new age pantheistic beliefs.


Proof One by Aquinas

The first proof Aquinas demonstrates is that God is real and exists as the first mover argument. The first mover argument is focused on the state of things moving from motion or change. As we can attest, most things in the universe do not just self-create, or self-recreate, there is a cause and effect to life as we reasonably know it. Thomas states, “A being that is moved or changed must be moved or changed by that which is extrinsic to such a being and is an act as to movement or change itself.”[7]Because there is no regress, there must be an unchanged mover.[8]Let’s now evaluate the concept of regress and first mover in the next paragraph.

Let us look at proof one with the simple analogy of a train. If a train goes by, one can explain that the tenth train car is pulled by train car nine, which is pulled by train car eight, and so on. Then we can say the train car one is the cause of the train moving; however, one could then ponder, “where did train car one come from?” Then where did the parts come from, the metal, and we can infinitely regress to where did the planet come from? Where did the universe come from? In the words of Aquinas, “but this cannot go on to infinity, because there would be no first mover, and consequently no other mover; seeing that subsequent movers move only inasmuch as they are put in motion by the first mover; as the staff moves only because it is put in motion by the hand.”[9]

Thomas eloquently describes, “Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other, and this everyone understands to be God.”[10]The concept of the first mover when observed through the analogy of a train can be simply visualized and understood by the general public. The train did not just randomly materialize itself, it was intelligently designed, the parts were mined, the train was created by humans. Where did humans come from? We can play the regression game, and not even scientific theories like the “Big Bang,” can explain where  or how the “Big Bang” came to be in existence.


Proof One Claim from Aquinas to New Age

Next, the fun part, this includes proving how illogical the new age is according to the reasonable logic of Aquinas’ first proof. The following section will make it clear that new age logic is irrational and that Aquinas’ proofs for the existence of God give a fantastic argument in proving that the pantheistic new age movement is incoherent. It is vital to keep Aquinas’ work in context as he was a philosopher and theologian, and the Five Ways was created for experienced philosophers who have a foundation in philosophy being introduced to theology.

As we just summarized, proof one of Aquinas is about the first mover claim, which states that, that which is changed or moved is acted upon by a force outside of itself. So, this means, if a building is built, it is made by something outside itself, a building does not merely build itself. A house, a person, and all things as we know it are created by something distinct, different and extrinsic to the creation. Nothing in the universe as we know it just appears, everything in the material realm is created by something else. Something cannot cause itself to exist if it is not yet existing.[11]Something that does not exist is nothing, and nothing is not a cause of anything.[12]

New age claims and pantheistic views interpret everything as God, people, nature and all things are all one as God. C.S. Lewis puts it well: “Pantheism is a creed not so much false as hopelessly behind the times. Once, before creation, it would have been true to say everything was God. But God created: He caused things to be other than himself.”[13]It is important to realize how dependent naturalistic theories are on self-causality. Every causal chain leads back to some beginning.[14]The new age claim completely dismisses the demand of a creator and makes everything as one and the same with God. The claim that everything is God is irrational and not evident in our universe if humans were made in the likeness of their creator, then they are not their creator because what humans create are not them. A mom can have a baby, but the mom is not the baby. A person can create a business, but the person is not the business.

The first mover argument is a powerful concept as it discerns the creator from the created for an example. The idea of the first mover is rather simple, even though it is communicated in complex philosophical language, it is not rocket science. The separation of a creator and created is evident all around us. One can paint a painting, but that does not mean that the painter is the painting. Proof one of Aquinas is clear on this separation of a creator and the created, this logical observation refutes new age pantheism. Pantheism is rejected since it claims that the universe is a necessary being, an idea we found illogical given the contingent nature of the universe.[15]

The Bible and scripture clearly answer the question of where the cosmos came from. In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Gen 1:1 ESV). For God is not a God of confusion but of peace (1 Cor 14:33). He is rather straight forward and clear with absolute truths and answers to questions about how the universe came to be, why humans exist, and where humans are going. The new age pantheistic world view is filled with confusion and is illogical.


Proof Two by Aquinas

            Proof two of Aquinas deals with the cause of changing beings, “the being of a particular thing is caused by that which has being in itself.”[16]Something cannot spring forth from nothing. Caused things depend on another for their cause. This brings us back to the analogy of the baby, the mom and dad caused the baby to be born. Something must have being before it can bring another thing into being. For example, a business must be caused by another, Elon Musk must first exist before he can invent his businesses and create Tesla to exist. Another example, God must exist before he could bring forth Adam and Eve, and creation as we know it. The concept of proof two is really logical and straightforward. There is nothing witnessed in the world that does not come from something else.

Let us now turn to the second way, which begins “from the rational pattern of the efficient cause.”Nothing can be the efficient cause of itself since the efficient cause of a thing is always prior to that thing. Furthermore, Thomas thought that in the order of efficient causes there had to be one that was simply first.[17]Thomas makes a clear, logical statement that things have a cause, and similar to proof one, as you regress or go back to the root of everything you end up at God as the cause. In the words of Aquinas, “The second way is from the nature of the efficient cause. In the world of sense, we find there is an order of efficient causes. There is no case known (neither is it possible) in which a thing found to be the efficient cause of itself; for it would be prior to itself, which is impossible.”[18]


Proof Two Claim from Aquinas to New Age

Proof two claims that all things must exist from something with being itself. Something cannot spring forth from nothing according to Aquinas’ second proof of God. In our natural universe, we can reasonably observe that all things have a cause. Therefore, life and intelligence have a cause, and since humans have consciousness, and order is found in science, we must spring from an intelligent creator who designed the universe with order. We do not live in a random chaotic world without cause as new age spirituality believes.

The pantheistic new age world view believes that “all is one; that art thou.”[19]To believe that you are a rock or you are God is illogical in our reality. I have two children; however, I am not my children, just like I am not my parents. Based on the logic of new age, we are all the same, just living in a veil of illusion, confusion, or “maya,” as it is referred to in the Yoga world. According to the new age, I am my children, and I am my parents, it is irrational and illogical. Not only is the new age absurd based on proof two by Aquinas, but it is also dangerous, as new age doctrine can be the cause of eternal destruction.

Not all kitchen ingredients make scrambled eggs, you need eggs, this is a simple analogy based on the logic of proof two. As eggs are the cause of scrambled eggs. The scrambled egg analogy can be applied to new age spirituality, not all paths or causes lead to the same door or outcome. Enter by the narrow gate. For the gate is wide and the way is easy that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many (Matthew 7:13).  In Matthew 24:24, Jesus warned of false teachers and imposters, while some truth can be found in all religions, the truth of salvation can only be found in Christ.[20]Jesus said to him, “I am the way the truth and the life. No one comes to the father except through me” (John 14:6).

New age spirituality, which does not believe in cause and effect, or consequences, believes and teaches the pantheistic view that all people are little gods who have forgotten who they are in the illusion of the world. New age explains that you are the painter and the painting, you are the creator and the created, it is illogical when reasoned against proof two. Doesn’t the new age story sound like the original deception and original sin in the Bible? Genesis three explains how Adam and Eve were initially deceived, But the serpent said to the woman, “You will not surely die. For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil” (Gen 3:4-5). The new age lie is the oldest lie in the book, and many people are drinking the pantheistic kool-aid, pridefully boasting that they are little “gods and goddesses in embryo” which is a term coined by new age guru, and false teacher Deepak Chopra.


Proof Three by Aquinas

The third way argues from relative or temporal necessity to absolute necessity. A being that exists does so necessarily but, as far as we can tell through our senses, contingently. There must, therefore, be a being that has the necessity of existence in itself.[21]The third proof is along the lines of to be, or not to be, “if everything is possible not to be, then at one time there could have been nothing in existence.”[22]

This third proof may seem complicated, but can be simplified, what is relative or temporary can be broken down to the cause and the effect. For example, a person may be temporarily hungover from the absolute cause of consuming too much wine the night before. The hangover is contingent on the overindulgence of the absolute necessity of wine consumption. Therefore, a hangover only exists contingently in the temporal world and is contingent on the absolute of too much alcohol. Therefore alcohol has the cause of a hangover in of itself and is the effect of itself. This crude example demonstrates that hangovers are contingent on too much alcohol, and one cannot have a hangover unless alcohol exists. To bring it back to Aquinas, people would not exist if it weren’t for God, it is as if God were wine, and humanity is the hangover. Therefore, we cannot postulate some being having of itself its own necessity, and not receiving it from another, but rather causing in others their necessity. This all men speak of as God.[23]

Proof Three Claim from Aquinas to New Age

Proof three, Aquinas explains how all contingent life, like humans, are based on a noncontingent and necessary being, this being can be labeled as God. New age believes we are all God, which again is illogical as something cannot come from nothing, there must be a first cause. The new age believes “consciousness creates reality and the whole is holographically contained in the parts.”[24]Necessarily, according to the new age belief, if we are parts of the holographic whole, we can view humanity almost as a parasite, the worldview of humans as parasites results in a different value of life and purpose compared to the view of humans as children of God. The new age spiritual philosophy does not make rational sense in the world as we know it. The universe gives every evidence of being caused and arranged by an intelligent mind, and yet it demonstrates no likelihood of being self-caused, which appears to be both a logical and factual impossibility in any case, or self-arranged and organized.[25]

If God is identical to the universe…it is merely another name for the universe; it is, therefore, bereft of any distinctive meaning; so pantheism is equivalent to atheism.[26]The pantheistic new age movement appears to remove the creative powers of God by poetically proclaiming everything is God, that we are all little gods, which doesn’t make sense. According to Clark and Geisler, “instead of absolutizing God, pantheists unintentionally limit God. If God creates necessarily then God must create. If creation is necessary, then God cannot not create.”[27]Pantheist almost makes God out like an addict, who has to create. The unwillingness to define God does not liberate Him from limits; instead, it actually entraps Him making him a slave of His own nature.[28]

According to proof three, life is contingent on a necessary and personal being known as God. The pantheistic new age worldview has made the painter into the painting, thus labeling the universe and all of creation as God. The new age view of God limits him to a slave or an addict who has no choice in the matter but to create. The logical reason for the universe and life as we know it is there is a divine creator, his fingerprints are apparent everywhere, and God is not an impersonal random energy.


Proof Four by Aquinas

The fourth way argues from degrees of being. Being that is more or less limited must depend on that which is inherently unlimited.[29]The fourth way is taken from the gradation to be found in things; among beings, there are some more and some less good, true, noble and the like.[30]

To simplify proof four, bring to mind water. Water can be clean and pure from a mountain spring, or it can be polluted and contaminated in an urban city. Based on this logic, there is something that is truest, something that is the most powerful, this something can be referred to as God.


Proof Four Claim from Aquinas to New Age

Many in new age claim self-deity, they are “powerful creators,” or gods who have lost their way in the illusion of this meaningless world. Yet those who claim they are gods and goddesses have no true capabilities to create the way God creates, often times they are miserable and suffering, which does not make sense for a real god. Proof four states that God is the purest and the most noble, this does not align with new age spirituality since its’ pantheistic base believes everything is God, even Hitler, and Hitler was not pure. Many in the new age world live to make money and achieve success, they are chasing worldly goals. For example, new age guru Deepak Chopra’s best-selling book was titled “The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success,” this is an example of the new age theme, it goes back to the first deception and trickery of the serpent deluding people into believing they are little gods.

Proof four claims God is the purest, and most high. The new age world makes God into the impersonal universe, which is like in the above-mentioned Hitler example, not genuine and noble in their intentions, but rather prideful and selfish. Those who claim they are powerful creators cannot create universes or galaxies they create nothing more than minuscule drama, or unsatisfying achievements in a fallen world. People are dependent on the creator who is independent of the creation, and who is the purest of everything. The creator, God, is unlimited, the noblest and the highest, and people are limited created beings.

Much of the new age movement is based on the pantheistic Yoga principles adapted from the east to fit into western culture. Indian culture has the veneer of openness, but it is highly critical to anything that hints at a challenge to it.[31]The pantheistic new age worldview comes with chaos and lacks free will, it is not pure, and if it is God, as it claims, then it appears illogical. New age pantheism seems open minded but cannot logically explain much. It is no accident that within the so-called tolerant culture of India was birthed the caste system.[32]Many new agers have an infatuation with all things India and are highly critical of the west. It is ironic because it is only in the west new agers could have the freedom to be fascinated with new age beliefs. Many cultures in the world, including pantheistic Hindu’s and Muslim’s, are not tolerant with their family members exploring other cultures. If a Muslim or a Hindu were to become Christian, their family is indoctrinated and directed to murder that family member. The practice of murder in a culture that is claiming to be God and one with God does not align with the highest goodness that God is per Aquinas’s fourth proof. All inclusive philosophies can only come at the cost of truth. And no religion denies its core beliefs. Within such systematic relativism, one tends to drift and float with the cultural tide and give no thought to the unforgiving nature of reality. That is how life is lived out in pantheistic cultures.[33]

Proof four suggests God is the purest of the pure, just like mountain spring water is far purer than a mud puddle and cleaner than city water. Pantheism, and cultures that are pantheistic claim that all is God, which is illogical especially since pantheistic cultures have harsh caste systems with zero free will, and account for evils in the world as illusory.


Proof Five by Aquinas

The fifth way argues, not unlike the second way and third, from things moving toward an end to the ultimate cause of such.[34]The fifth way is taken from the governance of the world; we see that things which lack intelligence, such as natural bodies, act for an end, and this is evident from their acting ways, or nearly always in the same way, so they obtain the best results.[35] This can be observed in the tides of the ocean, the ocean is intelligently designed not just random and chaotic with no order. Hence it is plain that not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end; now whatever lacks intelligence cannot move towards an end, unless it is directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is shot to its mark by the archer.[36]Like an archer with his bow and arrow, proof five explains God as the archer, and the creation like the bow he set into motion. Therefore, some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.[37]


Proof Five Claim from Aquinas to New Age

If the cause of the universe were an impersonal principle- that is, merely a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for creation- it would not choose to create but would automatically actualize the universe and could not exist without its effect.[38]The impersonal principle of the universe being God is what is widely accepted and taught in new age doctrine, but if this were so then God as the universe would be like an addict addicted and dependent to its addition. This would mean the universe is eternal, but as science seems to point out, the universe is finite and has a fixed start point or beginning. Since the universe is not eternal, the cause of the universe is not impersonal but personal.[39]It appears, as according to proof five by Aquinas, that the universe was designed by no other than God. The pantheistic view of everything being God makes no sense and creates an addicted slave god, versus a pure and powerful creator God.

There is a beginning and end to everything in the known universe, plants, stars, people and houses all decay and come to an end and have a distinct start. The mere fact of things having a beginning and an end, points to a creator versus everything being little gods. So, if everything is God, according to new age pantheistic philosophy, then God is always decaying and dying, existing and not existing, if this were so, we would not see the stable and organized existence of things as they are today. There seems to be, much like a Shakespeare play, a beginning and an end with regards to all observable life even the cosmos. We observe order, and design, in life and the universe, because of this it is illogical to think God is both His creation and the creator, just like a painter is not the painting, and an entrepreneur is not their business.



                        Is the universe an appropriate object of worship?[40]There appears to be confusion in the new age with the difference of the creator versus the creation. New agers “are people struggling to find their purpose in the cosmos but bedeviled by the fall.”[41]New age spirituality means well; it merely lacks logic and reason as it fatally denies God while confusing the creator with the creation.

The universe did not just appear, a first mover, God, set the universe in motion, this was made clear throughout the premise of this paper. The Five Ways set forth by the historic Thomas Aquinas made a clear case against new age pantheistic ideas. Pantheistic new age theory believes poetically, however, irrationally, that we are all little gods. According to the new age logic, we are self-created, we lit our own fire, we are the wood, the fire, and even the fireplace and chimney, and we tend to all of the universe like little gods, we are the universe, the universe is God, which is an impersonal force.

Thomas Aquinas logically argues for a personal creator and a contingent creation, which is not the same, just as a painter is not his painting, and an entrepreneur is not their business. The creation is ultimately dependent on the creator, the first mover, God. Not much has changed since the times of Thomas Aquinas, 800 years later, Aquinas’ reasons and logic are still applicable, arguably more so in our postmodern pantheistic landscape of “choose your own,” feel good spiritual beliefs than they were in his days.










Schumacher, Lydia. “Aquinas’s Five Ways.” Theology, 119, no. 1 (2016): 26.


Lewis C.S. The Problem of Pain. New York: MacMillan, 1962.


Dulles, Avery Cardinal. A History of Apologetics. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1971.


Wilcox, John R. “The Five Ways and the Oneness of God.” The Thomist: A Speculative Quarterly Review, 62, no. 2 (1998): 245-268.

Groothuis, Douglas R. Unmasking the New Age. Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 1986.

Groothuis, Douglas. Christian Apologetics A Comprehensive Case for Biblical Faith.Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 2011.

Zacharias, Ravi. Jesus among other Gods: an absolute claim to the Christian Message. Nashville TN: Thomas Nelson, 2000.

Clark, David K., and Norman L. Geisler. Apologetics in the New Age. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1990.

Chopra, Deepak.The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success. San Rafael, CA: Amber Allen Publishing, 1994.

Oliphint, Scott, and William Edgar. Christian Apologetics Past and Present, a Primary Source Reader Volume 1 to 1500. Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009.

Bush, L. Russ. The Advancement Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age. Nashville TN: B&H Academic, 2003.

Forrest, Peter. “Pantheism.” ROCZNIKI FILOZOFICZNE, no. 4 (2016):68-72. Accessed Date April 1st, 2019. DOI:

Johnson, Philip. “Apologetics, mission and new religious movements: a holistic approach.” Lutheran Theological Journal 36 no. 3 (2002): 99.


[1]David K. Clark and Norman L. Geisler, Apologetics in the New Age a Christian Critique of Pantheism, (Eugene, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2004), 8.

[2]David K. Clark and Norman L. Geisler, Apologetics in the New Age Pantheism, (Eugene, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2004), 8.

[3]Deepak Chopra, The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (San Rafael, CA: Amber Allen Publishing, 1994), 3.

[4]John R. Wilcox, “The Five Ways and Oneness of God,”The Thomist: A Speculative Quarterly Review, Volume 62, No, 2, (April 1998): 245-268.


[5]Avery Cardinal Dulles, A History of Apologetics (San Francisco: Ignatius Press), 113.

[6] Lydia Schumacher, “Aquinas’s Five Ways,” Theology 119, no. 1 (2016): 27.

[7]Avery Cardinal Dulles, A History of Apologetics (San Francisco: Ignatius Press), 398.

[8]Avery Cardinal Dulles, A History of Apologetics (San Francisco: Ignatius Press), 398.

[9]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 405.

[10]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 405.

[11]Russ L. Bush, The Advancement Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age(Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 133.

[12]Russ L. Bush, The Advancement Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age(Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 133.

[13]C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain (New York: MacMillan, 1962), 150-151.

[14] Russ L. Bush, The Advancement Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age(Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 133.

[15]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 238.

[16]Avery Cardinal Dulles, A History of Apologetics (San Francisco: Ignatius Press), 398.

[17]John R. Wilcox, “The Five Ways and Oneness of God,”The Thomist: A Speculative Quarterly Review, Volume 62, No, 2, (April 1998):245-268.

[18]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 406.

[19]Douglas R. Groothuis, Unmasking the New Age(Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1986), 141.

[20]Douglas R. Groothuis, Unmasking the New Age(Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1986), 157.

[21]Avery Cardinal Dulles, A History of Apologetics (San Francisco: Ignatius Press), 398.

[22]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 406.

[23]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 406.

[24]Douglas R. Groothuis, Unmasking the New Age(Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1986), 98.

[25]Russ L. Bush, The Advancement Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age(Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 75.

[26] H.P. Owen, Concepts of Deity(New York: Herder and Herder, 1971), 69, 70.

[27]David K. Clark and Norman L. Geisler, Apologetics in the New Age A Christian Critique of Pantheism, (Eugene, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2004), 149.

[28]David K. Clark and Norman L. Geisler, Apologetics in the New Age A Christian Critique of Pantheism, (Eugene, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2004), 149.

[29]Avery Cardinal Dulles, A History of Apologetics (San Francisco: Ignatius Press), 398.

[30]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 406.

[31]Ravi Zacharias, Jesus Among Other Gods (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2000), 7.

[32]Ravi Zacharias, Jesus Other Gods (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2000), 7.

[33]Ravi Zacharias, Jesus Among Other Gods (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2000), 7.

[34]Avery Cardinal Dulles, A History of Apologetics (San Francisco: Ignatius Press), 398.

[35]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 406.

[36]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 406.

[37]William Edgar and Scott Oliphint, Christian Apologetics Past and Present(Wheaton IL: Crossway, 2009), 406.

[38]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 235.

[39]Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 236.

[40]Peter Forrest, “Pantheism,” ROCZNIKI FILOZOFICZNE, 4 (2016):69. Accessed Date April 1st, 2019, DOI:

[41]Philip, Johnson, “Apologetics, mission and new religious movements: a holistic approach,” Lutheran Theological Journal 3, 36(Dec 2002): 99.